Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human Anatomy and Physiology

a) Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and it is anaerobic. The net production is 2 molecules of Pyruvic acid, 2 NADH and 4 molecules of ATP per glucose.

b) Prep step occurs in the mitochondria and it is anaerobic. The net production is 2 molecules of CO2, 2 NADH and 1 ATP per glucose.

c) Krebs Cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and it is aerobic. The net production is 4 molecules of CO2, 6 NADH molecules, 2 FADH2 molecules and 2 ATP molecules per glucose.

d) Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane and it is aerobic. The net production is 32 molecules of ATP.

2. Classification of Connective Tissues

Categories Subcategories Specialty

Connective Tissue Proper Loose Connective Tissue Main Cell: Fibroblasts

Location: Found between Organs

Function: It acts both to absorb shock and bind tissues together

Dense Connective Tissue Main Cell: Collagen Fibers

Location: Dermis of the Skin.Function: It enhancing tensile strength and resistance to stretching

Supportive Connective Tissue Bone Main Cell: Collagen fibers

Location: Internal body

Function: It allows the body to maintain its posture and protect internal organs.

Cartilage Main Cell: Proteoglycans

Location: Ear/Pinnae

Function: Connects bones together.

Fluid Connective Tissue Blood Main Cell: Erythrocytes

Location: Blood Vessels

Function: Transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.Lymph Main Cell: lymphocytes

Location: lymphatic vessels

Function: Responsible for the filtration of interstitial fluid from tissues, as well as absorption and transportation of fats from the digestive system into the bloodstream.

3. The functions of osseous tissue

It supports the body giving it shape.

It offers protection to internal body organs.

It stores minerals that are useful to the body and fats.

It facilitates the movement of the body.

It produces blood cells in the bone marrow.


Brain Region Function

a. Frontal lobe

Responsible for cognition and memory, and control of movement.b. Occipital lobe

Responsible for Vision.c. Temporal lobe

Responsible for processing sensory inputs especially pain and hearing.

d. Thalamus

Responsible for language and movement.e. Hypothalamus

Responsible for linking the nervous system to the endocrine system.f. Medulla Oblongata

Controls various autonomic nervous system functions such as heart rate, breathing rates, etc.

g. Cerebrum Responsible for receiving and relaying meaning of information from the sense organs.5. Mechanisms for protecting the brain.The meninges: Comprises of three layers namely dura-mater, arachnoid layer and pia-mater that protects the brain as well as the spinal nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system.

Cerebrospinal fluid secreted in the ventricles within the subarachnoid space to protect the brain from trauma as well as to supply nutrients and remove waste after cerebral metabolism.

Blood supply to the brain through the carotid artery which provides the brain with nutrients. The blood stream also absorbs old cerebrospinal fluid.

The cranium protects the brain from injury by covering the top.

6. Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Hormone Site of Secretion Target Organ Function Tropism

Thyroid stimulating hormone Anterior Pituitary Thyroid gland Controls secretion of Thyroxin Tropic

Adrenocorticotropic hormone Anterior Pituitary The Adrenal cortex Controls cortisol secretion.Tropic.Growth hormone Anterior lobe of the Pituitary All tissues Regulates body metabolism and controls physical growth. Non-tropic

Luteinizing Hormone Anterior Pituitary Ovaries and Testes Controls ovulation and luteinization of follicles. Tropic

Follicle Stimulating Hormone Anterior Pituitary Ovaries and Testes Controls growth of ovarian follicles as well as secretion of oestrogen. Tropic

Prolactin Anterior Pituitary Mammary gland Controls production of milk.Non-tropic

7. Complete circuit of a Red Blood Cell

During osmoregulation, red blood cells flow to the kidneys through the right and left renal arteries. The arteries branch into arterioles within the kidney where blood flows at relatively high pressure into glomerulus. Glomerulus are found in the nephrons. The blood pressure drops from the glomerulus as it flows through the networks of arterioles surrounding the nephrons. After filtering, these tiny blood vessels join again to form the renal vein where blood flows out of the kidney.

8. The five main types of leukocytes

White Blood Cells Function

Basophils Responsible for allergic reactions

Neutrophils Fights bacteria and fungus.Monocytes Responsible for phygocytosis.Lymphocytes Identifies and destroys foreign invaders.

Eosinophil Responsible for fighting parasites and the modulation of allergic inflammatory responses.9. Functions of T lymphocytes and the B lymphocytes

T lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow through the hematopoietic stem cells. They include cytotoxic t cells which kill virally infected cells through release of cytotoxic granules, T-helper cells which become activated by peptide antigens to release cytokines and to activate other cells, and memory T cells which are activated following an infection to provide a memory of previous similar infection to the immune system.

B lymphocytes are responsible for the production of antibodies and the presentation of antigens to T cells. They include plasma cells which are large lymphocytes composed of large volumes of endoplasmic reticulum that makes provision for the production of antibodies to specific antigens until the infection is fully controlled, memory B cells that remain in the body following an infection for future rapid response against a similar infection upon re-exposure, and the T-independent cells which are found in the spleen and are responsible for fighting polysaccharide-encapsulated bacteria by producing antibodies without the assistance of T cells.10. The structures an air molecule crosses on the way to the pulmonary capillary

During inhalation, the diaphragm falls thereby creating a negative pressure in the thoracic cavity causing lungs to inflate thus drawing air molecule from outside the body. The air is inhaled through the external nares where it is warmed to body temperature and made humid by mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. The warm air molecule then passes through the pharynx and larynx to the trachea. The trachea is made up of cartilages and smooth muscles that keep it open and prevent any collapse when passing air in or out. It is also has a wall lined with cilia which sieve any particles inhaled together with the air, moving them to the pharynx, and secretes mucus as well. Trachea branches into bronchus and bronchioles that are attached to alveoli ducts. These ducts have sacs at their ends where air molecules are exchanged. The alveoli have thin walls and are in direct contact with the pulmonary capillaries in the lungs where the air molecules diffuse through.

Describe the three pairs of salivary glands and ducts which secrete into the mouth

These three pairs are the sublingual gland, parotid, and submandibular. The parotid gland secretes serous, watery secretion while the mandibular gland produces a mixture of serous and mucus secretion. The sublingual gland secretes what is basically mucus.

Describe the three accessory digestive organs which empty into the duodenum , their ducts, and their secretions.

The liver is the largest secretory organ that secretes bile used in the chemical breakdown of food. Bile juice is transported using the bile duct. Pancreas secrets pancreatic juice into tiny ducts that come together to form two major ducts that later join the bile duct before entering the duodenum. The gall bladder found in the right lobe of the liver store and concentrates bile juice and propels the fluid through the common bile duct when triggered.

Describe in detail the structures a water molecule passes through the filtration membrane of the glomerulus to the urethra.

During glomerular filtration, small molecules of water pass rapidly through a filtration membrane while large molecules remain. However, if the concentration of the glomerular filtrate is high than the content at the other end, water moves from the capsular space through the membrane and joins the filtrate because the concentration of the filtrate is usually equal to that of the plasma to maintain osmotic balance.

Give the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and pH for intracellular and extracellular fluid. Give two hormones (of many) which help regulate the levels of Na, K, and Cl.

Sodium and chloride are the major cation and anion respectively in the extracellular fluids. The hormones that control the levels of these electrolystes include Parathyroid hormoneĀ (PTH) and Calcitriol.

Fluid Electrolytes Concentration (mEq/L)

Extracellular Fluids Na 143

K 10

Cl 118

Ca 3

Intracellular K 142

Cl 5

Ca 10Na 12

Starting at the epididymis describe the passage of a sperm during the act of ejaculation.

During ejaculation, sperms is forcefully expelled from the back of the epididymis and joins the deferent duct. Here, the deferent duct moves the sperms upwards through the spermatic cord into the pelvic area. Here the sperms are above the ureter that is located at the back of the bladder. After this point, the vas deferens and the seminal vesicle join to become the ejaculatory duct, which goes by the prostate and pours the contents into the urethra. The sperm is propelled using rhythmic muscle movements.

What glands secrete into the male reproductive structure? Where do these secretions empty into and what function do they serve.

Accessory glands which include prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and the bulbourethral glands secrete fluids into the urethra. Seminal vesicles secrete a viscous fluid with a significant concentration of fructose which provides energy for the for the sperm enhancing mobility and viability. The prostate produce a thin, milky and alkaline fluid responsible for the motility of the sperm. Bulbourethral Glands produce a mucus like fluid that neutralizes acid found in the urethra from fragments of urine and acidic juices in the vagina.

Oogenesis is a complex process involving starts and stops. Describe Meiosis I and Meiosis II until fertilization occurs.

Oogenesis is basically meiosis because the later results in the production of oocytes which later becomes ova. Oogenesis or the process of Meiosis begins when an individual is in the womb.

Describe the process of gastrulation, the three germ layers, and which structures derive from these three layers.

Gastrulation is where cells move in the embryo to form the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm which are three layers from which organs develop. Tissues of the nervous system and the epidermis develop from the ectoderm. Connective and muscle tissues come from the mesoderm while the gut and other internal organs grow from the endoderm.

Describe approximately when the following processes begin in a baby.

Heart begins to beat

22 days after the baby is conceived and can be noticed on screen after five weeks since the last period.

First neural activity detected in the brain

By week 4 the baby is already developing areas that will form major parts of the brain namely forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. However, it is not until the end of the fifth week does electrical activity begin in the brain.

Ossification ( bone development)

Begins when the embryo is 6 to 7 weeks.

Lungs begin to function

The lungs of a fetus do not begin to function until they are born. However, towards the end of the pregnancy, the fetus begins to inhale and exhale amniotic fluid periodically as some sort of practice.