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1-Given Holwerda’s findings in the study about work and individuals with ID, how could that information inform goals for a IEP transition plan? Alternately, how might the findings help you counsel families or students themselves? Results from Holwerd’s study indicate that motivation, and expectation regarding future work level, gender, living situation is predictors of working participation in young adults. Personal factors exceeding social factors are important in predicting work participation. Families should stop condemning students with intellectual disabilities and give support to them. Families should be advised that personal and social factors such as motivation, self esteem, social support and family involvement are very essential to securing employment for individuals with intellectual disabilities.

2. Discuss and critique the factors that contribute to varying prevalence rates for ID across different states. How do you see these factors play out in your own district or school site? The factors that contribute to varying prevalence rtes for ID across different states are: level of population, level of education, the living situations, levels and rates of employment, social class and ethnicity, gender and level and severity or disorder across states. The distribution of affected population depends on the severity of the disorder. Reports also show the prevalence is high among males than females. Research also shows that there is a correlation between low maternal education and prevalence of intellectual disabilities. Lower economic or social conditions are associated with poorer health, a condition that affects the growth of fetus of a young child. These factors can be viewed to be true from every corner of United States. In my area, living standards such as residential placement, sheltered accommodation and also social class and ethnicity are associated with intellectual disability prevalence.

3. Explain the placement patterns (e.g. general education, special day class, special school) for students with ID across states. How would you characterize your own school’s commitment to serving students with ID in general education? The historical image of special education was often based on the profiles of programs for students with intellectual disabilities. The findings show that many students were in the special education confined or self contained classrooms. They pent limited time integrated settings. Today placement of student in programs outside the general education is still predominant across states. There are different placements today that help in educating students with intellectual disabilities. These are special day classes, special schools and general education classes. In my school they are being placed in general education classrooms to help them cope and socialize with the normal students. This makes them not to feel isolated.

4-Explain the sociometry measure and how it was used in the Smoot study. Critique its validity and discuss whether you believe the data is useful for practice. Sociometry was used to measure peer acceptance in mainstream settings. It established reliability and validity. It can be used easily to measure the social outcome of inclusion programs. It can also be used to measure achievement if IEP. This method however can only be used in small researches. It can also lead to deterioration of students relationships because of the direct question asked on student’s opinions on other students. For example asking a student to indicate who he would rather not associate with may lead to more hatred.

5. What connections can you make in regard to students with ID in school and their subsequent success in the finding and maintaining employment? Just like any other person, an individual with ID have the desire to work or participate in work that provides them with opportunities for financial independence and independence in living. If supported and given the necessary cooperation, People with intellectual disabilities can work very well and independently. We only need to understand their situation and give them support.


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