History questions with answers

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History questions with answers

1. What were the causes of the Revolutions of 1848-49 and what was the outcome in France,

Austria, Italy, and Germany?

Revolutions of 1848 involved republican revolts against the European monarchies and this had a great effect on the leadership of the monarchies after the revolution. These revolutions were caused by the lack of proper governance and therefore the citizens and the people who revolted were against the kind of government which was in place at that particular time and which did not consider their rights an their concerns as part of those being ruled and as part of the general society which depended on the government. The base for these revolutions took place in 1832 when public unrest was witnessed due to political censorship and heavy taxation as experienced by the individuals at that time. Some of the revolutions stayed a little longer while others lasted for a short while. Ina general manner the revolutions had little political change but had great social and cultural change. They led to abolition of serfdom in Austria. In Germany and Italy there was the removal of the French empire which led to removal of enlightened ideas as the conservative monarchs took over.

2. What key ingredients/benefits did England have that allowed it to lead the Industrial Revolution.

England was a leading force towards the industrial revolution due to its positioning in a place whereby it was the one which had the resources and everything that was needed for this purpose. The agricultural revolution was one of the major effects and factors which led the England to be a major player in industrial revolution. This is because its agricultural sector was widely advanced and therefore it had many areas which the rest of the world could learn from and which could be industrialized. England was also the first to experience technological revolution and this was a leading factor towards the industrial revolution. The natural resources like coal and iron were also of great importance and significance in industrial revolution. The other factor which was of great importance in England was the political stability.

3. What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna? What did it hope to achieve?

The major goal of this congress was to bring back stability and peace in the whole of Europe. This was achievable though this congress of Vienna whereby the participating countries discussed on how they could make it possible for Europe to have the peace and stability which it had enjoyed before and therefore things like boundaries, resolution of the Napoleon war and tried to restore the monarchies napoleon had overthrown. Another goal of this congress was to make sure that France was fully contained within its borders and prevent its expansion of French revolution. They also wanted to learn how to cooperate with one another for long term periods of peace and mutual benefits.

4. Was Napoleon Bonaparte a liberator or a tyrant?

Napoleon can be said to have had a controversial attitude and personality. However he can be referred to as a tyrant from the way he is seen in most of the places and most of the scenes which he appears and which he is involved in. he tried to represent and portray himself as Caesar as he wore his crown made of gold as well as the icon of the eagle all from Rome. He personally oversaw the production of plays and if he was not pleased with a certain play the job of the playwright to produce plays was ended at that very time. He created a grandiose image of himself and established a tightly controlled society.

5. What were the causes of the French Revolution?

There were any factors which led to the French revolution and these included the economic factors as well as the social and cultural factors. There were also international causes like the struggle for the empire resource and the hegemony which led to the French revolution. There was a reform of the tax system and therefore there was a conflict between the monarchy and nobility over its reform. Bin 1788 and 1789 there was the agrarian crisis which presented popular discontent and disorders and therefore generating economic hardship. There were also two rising groups which were aristocracy and bourgeoisie and these two were against each other and therefore there were social antagonism.

6. What institutions/practices were the philosophes against?

They were a group of French enlightened thinkers who believed that it if freedom which was a solution to that ills that afflicted the society. The philosophes believed free thought, reason and truths would lead the world to a better place. They criticized to a great extent the institutions of absolute monarchy like the Catholic Church and which had a lot of influence in the manner the governments of the world ruled. They stated that the church had to be separated from the politics and therefore people had to think on their own, make decisions on their own and determine what is best for them without the excess involvement of the church.

7. What discoveries were made by Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton?

Galileo was an Italian thinker who improved the telescope discovered astronomy and made observations in the same field and he was the major influence and the person who advanced the concept of relativity in physics. Copernicus also discovered about the solar system and that the sun was the center of the universe which was against eh common believe that the earth was the center. Isaac newton came up with the laws in physics about motion and gravitational force. Therefore these three were scientists and were much involved into physics branch of science whereby they discovered almost similar or related concepts of science.

8. What did Peter the Great do for Russia?

Peter the great brought a lot of changes in Russia even though most of the people did not accept them since they were traditionalists and conservatives and therefore what they supported were just the olden way so life. He travelled to Europe and admired their way of life especially the technological advancements and therefore this he brought to Russia. He brought many social, industrial, technological, military and economic reforms. He even introduced a punishment for the drunkards due to his hate for those who were drunkards. He led the Russians to win the great northern war of 1703 and he established Saint Petersburg which is referred to as the window of Europe.

9. What was the legacy of King Louis XIV? What did he do for France and how did he leave France when he died?

Upon his death King Louis XIV left France one of the most organized and strong nations brought into one unity. He had a great political heritage and great personal character which made him successful. He made France the dominant power in Europe at his time and he also brought in a new appreciation of art and literature which was referred to as the golden age. Through his efforts the monarchy was transformed in a very great manner. Apart from these he also build the palace at Versailles which was very good and special. He died of gangrene in his palace in Versailles and left his son of 5 years to succeed him in leadership.