History and Political Science in the USA



Course Instructor


History and Political Science


America really respects other countries and do not like to get itself in any country’s internal affairs. After America got her independence, they did not like the idea of peopling other nations. Being that America greatly considers itself as one of the most democratic countries in the world, it does not involve itself in the affairs of other countries. Following the “Good Neighbour Policy” in1933 by President Roosevelt, America promised to boost sociable associations and joint defence among nations of the Western Hemisphere. This policy highly encouraged interaction between America and Latin America particularly during the exploitative dollar diplomacy. Nevertheless, US did not obey the policy for long thus forcing themselves to adopt other options particularly on Latin America countries. US authorizing designation of military zones within US where no one was targeted and it resulted into mass relocation and internment of Japanese-Americans. The remote internment camps included both Japanese who were US citizens and non US citizens. However, Supreme Court ruling halted the detention of the US citizen without any reason thus leading to rescindment of the court order.


Appeasement was intended to keep peace by giving Hitler what he wanted so that he could stop going to war. The British prime minister greatly believed in appeasement. The Sudetenland demanded a union with Hitler’s Germany but the Czechs declined prompting Hitler to threaten war in the Munich conference. Hitler’s war threat made Britain and France to give the Sudetenland to Germany. The United States decided to remain neutral from hot areas in Europe and Far East that threatened with new war. Although US was brought into world war II by the attack on Pearl Harbour, American actions are believed to have caused the attack.. The economic penalties put on Japan really angered Japanese who were very aggressive. The tariffs imposed by the US had a bad effect on the Japanese exports thus causing their economic depression.


The youth movements were are movements that protested racial segregation which began in North Carolina by black youths. SNCC was initiated by four black freshmen from North Carolina A& T state University in 1960 by taking seats on the white-only counters waiting to be served and this action really transformed America democratically. Tom Hayden believed in active participation and commitment as well as taking risks in as far as making history by stoppage of racial segregation and discrimination is concerned. These movements criticized the political system of the US for not addressing sensitive issues such as international peace and social ills such as poverty, racism and other forms of exploitations.


Counterculture was a 1960 cultural phenomenon that quickly spread in the US and UK as well as other Western world and really influenced people despite the fact that they were considered immoral, anarchistic and revolutionary. Counterculture was a group whose values and norms are regarded as odd compared to other social mainstream .The negative perception of these groups was easily manifested in the media but surprisingly, quickly became very popular by becoming spearheading of social campaigns. Some of the influences of counterculture was sexual revolution which challenged traditional codes of behaviour relating to sexuality as well as interpersonal relationships such as gays and lesbians who publicly revealed their sexuality without fear.



The “Me Generation’ is a generation that is characterised by self-fulfilment and self-realization as well as narcissistic personality. Me Generation was as a result of worse economic status such as oil crisis that made people to be focussed on their own issues but not political matters or issues of social justice. The “Me generation” relates to the period of between 1970’s to 1980’s because during that period there were economic challenges and the baby boomers were also aging and they wanted something such as entertainment to relax with.


Domestic and international dislocations created anxiety amongst Americans and this greatly offered Republicans politic al opportunity in addressing issues such as economic challenges, fears regarding decline of American powers. Civil rights and sexual revolutions condemned and undermined the Democratic coalition especially on serious issues such as high urban crime and courts leniency towards criminals. Religious fundamentalism also came into existent around 1970’s and played a major role in the expansion of conservatism


The Reagan Revolution was influenced by American conservatives and was encouraged by the libertarianism, traditionalism and cold war anti-communism. This revolution recognizes Reagan’s political readjustment as far as American internal and foreign affairs are concerned in favour of his brand of conservatism and belief in free market. During his tenure, there was increased government spending, increased national debt. According to Reagan, it was necessary to reduce the people’s reliance on the government. Reagan introduced big tax cuts and reduced government reliance thus introducing supply side economics which is popularly known as Reaganomics.


Reagan’s militaristic policies resulted into the end of cold war. Reagan boosted military spending thus forcing the Soviet Union to do the same. Increased military spending by the Soviet Union made the Russian economy to be pushed to bankruptcy hence paralysing their military powers. It is actually argued that military build-up and reconciliatory approach towards Moscow played significant role in ending the cold war. In the Middle East Reagan supported the Israeli-Egypt peace agreement and he showed much support to Israel at the expense of other various Muslim Palestinians. Reagan provided enormous support to the US intelligence and strongly stood against Arab nationalism. In the Central American war, Reagan supported Nicaragua and opposed Sandinistas’ claim to power forcing him to train the Nicaraguan’s soldiers to fight the Sandinistas. Reagan’s administration underwent a serious scandal known as the Iran-contra affair when it was revealed that US sold weapons expensively to Iran during the Iran-Iraq war so that the proceeds could be channelled to the contras in Nicaragua.