Hip and Knee Movement Analysis

Hip and Knee Movement Analysis

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Hip and Knee Movement Analysis

Hip and knee movements aid in the or instead allows an individual in performing complex movements such as ladder climbing, walking, running, and standing at a steady angle without falling over. Knee and hip joints form significant weight-bearing joints as they support the entire body organs. Thus they must work together in unison to provide the necessary support in attaining general balance. Without proper credit, one could easily fall over.

The femur, patella, and tibia connection form a knee joint, mainly allowing flexion and extension. The knee joint consists of two main movements, or rather the articulations of patellofemoral and the tibiofemoral articulation. Hyaline cartilage forms a lining between the knee joints. In the tibiofemoral articulation, the femur’s medial and lateral condyles articulate with the tibial condyles.

Patellofemoral articulation occurs where the distal femur articulates with the patella. The primary function of the patella in the knee joint movements is to act as a fulcrum hence increase the power of the knee extensor. Another function is to reduce the friction in the femoral condyles during exercise. Genicular anastomoses help supply blood to the knee through the popliteal arteries. A synovial fluid referred to as bursa aid in the reduction of wearing and tearing of the moving structures in the knee joint. Extension, flexion, lateral rotation, and medial rotation form knee movements. Medial rotation is aided by the popliteus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis, and the sartorius muscles.

The mechanism of hip joint movement allows the rotation or rather movement in three main axes, all of which are perpendicular to each other. Synovial ball and socket joints together form the hip joint. The hip joint performs majorly weight-bearing functions, while the knee joint is specifically for the movement actions. Articulation of the pelvic acetabulum and the head of the femur form hip joint movements. Articular cartilage cover both the head of the femur and the pelvic acetabulum. The articular cartilage is thicker at the places of weight-bearing. The shape of the acetabulum contributes to the stability of the hip joints as it can hold the entire head of the femur. This characteristic is responsible for general body stability.

Intracapsular and extracapsular ligaments have a significant function in increasing stability. The extracapsular ligament is divided into three ligaments: the pubofemoral, iliofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments. The iliofemoral ligament is the strongest, and its function is to prevent the hyperextension of the hip joint. The central part of the ischiofemoral ligament is to prevent hip joint hypertension and hold the femur’s head in the acetabulum. On the other hand, the pubofemoral ligament helps avoid excessive abduction and extension.

The significant movements associated with the hip joint include; abduction, extension, flexion, lateral rotation, medial rotation, and adduction. The quadriceps femoris is the primary muscle responsible for flexing the knee; it is responsible for raising the knee at the hip to produce the hip-knee movement. The muscle is generally termed a hip extensor and flexor muscle. The quadriceps femoris combines four forces; vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius. Other muscles responsible for hip flexion include; the iliacus, psoas, pectineus, rectus femoris, and sartorius. The rectus femoris muscle is the primary muscle responsible for both hip and knee joint movements as it crosses both hip and knee joints. The primary hip movements responsible for locomotion are extension, abduction, hip rotation, adduction, circumduction, and flexion.