Healthcare Equality





Healthcare Equality

The healthcare equality refers to the provision of health services to all with no discrimination and the time of need. In spite of the personnel in the US is the best, the treatment they offer is overspecialized, neglects preventive ad primary care and is inequitable; this leads to its systems being the lowest ranked with other industrialized nations. All this happens despite the country spending more money on healthcare; this is attributed to underutilized preventive care and patients with chronic diseases not receiving the best care. In the below discussion, the focus will be placed on all aspects of healthcare especially the inequality in the States.

To begin with, they are different ethics that are associated with healthcare, among them autonomy which is the freedom of the patient to make decisions regarding his health with no coercion from any health personnel, the personnel is only allowed to inform the patient on the risks, benefits and success likelihood. Second, we have the justice that requires benefits and burdens of experimental treatment be distributed to all society members and beneficence where the health care personnel should aim to achieve positive benefit to the patient’s well-being. Moreover, the non-maleficence ethics that require that all the procedure being applied to the patient should not do them any harm, (Edge, and Groves).

There are various health insurance plans, among them the national health where all medical services are provided through the government through the public center financed by taxes and a single-payer where the government collects all the healthcare money and in turn, pay for all costs. Lastly, an all-payer plan that provides universal insurance, it pays all centers and personnel equally hence reduces the billing costs.

Additionally, various disparities in the state’s systems are as a result of social stratification and have translated to the provision of health care services where the blacks’ survival rate of terminal illness is lower to that of the white and women are restricted to health services because of the costs, (Tamara). In addition, the care quality given to the blacks is lower, and the women non-discrimination right is violated where they are restricted to reproductive health services. Moreover, the variations in the access of healthcare range from the stay in hospitals, specialist visits, testing and procedures from both hospitals in different regions and those in the same; this usually affects the lower income earners and those of diverse demographic and ethnic groups. To achieve health equality, various scholars have placed their emphasis on detecting disparities, understanding their determinants and ways to reduce them, (Patel, and Rushefsky).

The various groups prone to this disparity are based on gender where the women in spite of having the lowest life expectancy compared to that of men, they also are prone to high mortality rates, (Kronenfeld). The reason for this increase has been associated with accidental poisoning, obesity, suicide, and depression, which is one cause of women disability. The gender disparities are also reflected since most men than women have more education level, which translates to high income leaving women not having enough money to pay for health services. Additionally, women are more prone to violence; this leaves them with injuries, the risk of transmitted diseases, heart diseases and gynecological problems that will require medical attention. Another minority group that does not receive healthcare, as it should is the LGBT; this group has been excluded to various social advantages and rights and in turn associated with crime. Recent research advocated for intervention in this groups disparities and needs, but not much has been done because of the discrimination and stigma members of this group suffer, (Eckstrand, and Ehrenfeld).

The factors that lead to these disparities are increased healthcare cost arising from costly technology advancement and drugs, which translate to high development cost thus costly services, the emergence of terminal illness, which require high allocation of costs. Lately, the quality of insurance has been declining because of the rising premiums that lead to the poor and minorities lacking this covering in turn leading the government to spend more on healthcare. To reduce some of this costs health should be funded based on the health cost to income and not citizen’s medical history or risk and the drugs should be bought in bulk with negotiated prices and medical equipment’s purchased should be durable. There should be reforms to ensure equality in accessing this service by addressing the high costs and poor quality and ensuring many people are ensured so that they can settle the fees. Recently, civil rights have helped to curb the LGBT discrimination, reducing the stigma, increasing their visibility; this has enabled them to access healthcare services. Another reform to reduce the disparity is that the States should diversify their workforce; this is by employing many people from diverse backgrounds because this will show policy advocating and most diverse members will trust the institution. Identification and use of the components and stakeholders will address these differences, and by using the advanced technology, it will be possible to reach out to the underrepresented population.

The main reform that has played a bigger part to reduce the health inequality is the Affordable Care Act, it was enacted in 2010 and has 3 goals that include, making insurance to be available to many citizens, expand Medicaid program and support innovating health methods. Today the healthcare inequality difference has been reduced, which happened because of the president signing the ACA to law, those changes include, all citizens should have a health insurance form either as an individual, from an employer or a public program; this has increased the number of people under insurance programs. Secondly, an exchange marketplace of healthcare was created so that people could shop for insurance and to reduce the cost there were subsidized credits on taxes, also the Medicaid program was expanded which have seen other 30 states adopt the reform, (D’Antonio).

Moreover, there were some provisions in the ACA to increase access and affordable health care, they include, the banishment of monetary caps or all plans of insurance and excluding adults and children’s with preexisting conditions. Additionally, canceling of coverage was prohibited for all plans unless in fraud cases, a requirement to rebate the clients if they spent less than 85% of their premiums was stated and a fund was allocated for preventive care, example prenatal care, immunization, and screening of diseases. To counter the increasing medical costs, some cost control clauses in the ACA required the enactment of an advisory board that would provide the President and the Congress with recommendations to control the Medicare cost once they exceeded the target rate. In addition, the Medicare program was changed to provide the highly rated plans with bonuses and incentive the private ones to improve efficiency and quality and the process of determining eligibility, transferring funds and billing was simplified. Moreover, the health center with high readmission would receive reduced Medicare payments, and an innovation center was established to test program expenditure declining methods, (Béland et al.)

Despite the new reforms a few challenges are still being witnessed, example some people are not yet insured with some of the few insured experiencing high premiums and deductible costs, and many people are in the coverage gap, which is lower the premium credit limits and above the acceptable Medicaid limit. Additionally, identifying this groups also prove to be difficult, example the LGBT which because of the stigma and discrimination they do not come out openly and the lower incomes of the citizens that make them hard to join an insurance plan. The universal insurance plan being advocated by the states and other countries is also a challenge because of the high commitment level it requires. Disparities are caused by multiple factors thus these determinants should be given an account while addressing and tracking and emphasis should be on the specific factor and not the general. Additionally, misinformation and lack of information is another challenge because data is used to make inferences about issues so that necessary action should be taken, (Begley).

From the above discussion, it is evident that healthcare is like a basic need because it will translate to the well-being of all people which in turn will lead to economic growth. The various disparities in the provision of these services affect people of lower income and those of diversified ethnic assimilation, which should not be the case. Every person regardless of his origin, cultural assimilation, earning has a right to quality healthcare hence in spite of the few challenges with the act, those responsible should ensure everybody access quality care. This should be one of the country’s goals to achieve a more equitable society and putting the resources of the country for the good of everyone. Unfortunately, the disparities in spite of being discussed openly and documented they are still there, and an era where everyone will access good health seems impossible.

Works Sited

Begley., Charles E. Evaluating The Healthcare System: Effectiveness ; Efficiency ; And Equity ; Fourth Edition. Health Administration Press, 2015.Béland, Daniel et al. Obamacare Wars. University Press Of Kansas, 2016.

D’Antonio, Michael. A Consequential President. St. Martin’S Press, 2016.Eckstrand, Kristen L, and Jesse M Ehrenfeld. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Healthcare. Cham : Springer, 2016.

Edge, Raymond S, and John Randall Groves. Ethics Of Health Care. Boston, MA : Cengage Learning, 2018.

Kronenfeld,, Jennie J. Special Social Groups, Social Factors And Disparities In Health And Health Care.. Bingley, UK : Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, Accessed 4 Apr 2018. Patel, Kant, and Mark E Rushefsky. Health Care In America. Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2008.

Tamara, Patti. Health Inequalities And Global Justice. Edinburgh University Press., 2012, Accessed 4 Apr 2018.