Health Locus As A Mediator To Self Stigma Of Health Seeking


Health Locus As A Mediator To Self Stigma Of Health Seeking By

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Health Locus as a Mediator to Self Stigma of Health Seeking


Mental illness causes stigma that has consequences that devastates for patients and their families. Statistical data in many countries globally shows that mental illness is common and constitutes a vital barrier to good treatment thus one is barred from achieving good opportunities in life. It can also result in prediction of poor outcomes in life over the mental illness effects. It discredits an individual as a community member as it portrays one as having perceptions that are altered. Self-stigma is a phenomenon that has caused the dilemma to many people who are mentally ill. As such, the individuals tend to suffer from low self-esteem and lack of self-worth. They are never interested in trying out anything as they consider themselves born failures. This paper serves to illustrate how self-stigma and the processes of arbitration affect behaviors that are goal related. London University participants were chosen to be part of the study.With exceptional spotlight on models of social psychology, this paper also explains the text of why such people are always negative about trying things out. Self-stigma has three steps that include stereotype awareness, agreeing with it and ways of putting up with the scenario in one’s self (United States, National Institute Of Education, Educational Resources Information Center U.S and National Library of Education, U.S 1975, 35). Due to lack of self-worth and self-esteem, certain individuals are always not willing to pursue careers that would make them achieve their goals. Through empowerment of such patients, self-stigma effects can be made to lessen. The methodology used to carry out this research was based on empirical data.IntroductionCommunal and self-stigma are the key forms by which stigma and its effects are differentiated. Communal stigma, reliable with a model that is psychologically social, has been explained in terms of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. Social psychologists view stereotype as structures of knowledge that are learned by members of a given social group and focused on people of diverse groups. As per the previous study results, there has been demonstrations that males practice elevated intensity of both self stigma and public stigma related to seeking for psychological help than the females. The findings are dependable on earlier study results. The findings can be construed as females are less inclined by the depressing communal scrutiny associated with seeking help than males.Mental illness stereotypes include fault, awfulness, and lack of skill. Most people knowledgeable about stereotypes do not necessarily have to agree with such stereotypes. Stereotypes, that are pejorative, are in most instances endorsed by individuals who are prejudiced. For example, it is a belief that mad people are naturally crazy and, as a result, they produce emotional reactions that are negative (University Microfilms, Xerox University Microfilms, and University Microfilms International 1969, pg 39). Discrimination is brought about as a result of prejudice as portrayed in behavioral response. There are three ways in which public stigma causes discrimination. Such are opportunity loss, isolation, and intimidation. Public stigma illustrates how the community in general envisages and reacts to people whose illnesses are mental in nature and their effects that are at the heart of this paper.A person, who experiences self stigma, should be aware of the type of a stereotype that explains a group of persons who are stigmatized. For instance, whether to accept that mentally ill people are to blame for their mental illness or disagree that they should not be blamed for their problems ((United States, National Institute Of Education, Educational Resources Information Center U.S and National Library of Education, U.S 1975, pg 65). On the other hand, an individual, who accepts that he is mentally incapacitated, is to blame for his disorder. This point of view suggest that self-stigma has a hierarchical association; a mentally ill person must first be conscious of matching stereotypes before accepting and applying self-stigma to one’s self.In order to perceive control over an individual’s conduct, an assessment is carried out through the concept of the health locus control. It is the procedure by which a person’s emotions are identified. Both internal locus such as one’s feelings and external locus such as how the outside world reacts to such emotions are analyzed in this paper (University Microfilms, Xerox University Microfilms, and University Microfilms International 1969, pg 59). In essence, locus of health aids in battling self-stigma and might eventually lead to a person’s health improved conduct. In addition, as an arbitrator to self-stigma, locus of health aids in the promotion of inclusion socially in patients.An association between self-worth and behaviors that are health related has been viewed in preceding results to be useful social stigma diversion in both mental health and illness disorders. Self-stigma related diseases like HIV/STI, Diabetes, Cancer and Tuberculosis among others are treated in patients through the notion of physical Therapy. By doing this, a scenario, that helps in improving one’s emotions and confidence, is built. Though a higher level of stigmatization is associated with self-stigma, there should be a further degree of evaluation between age and self-stigma. In comparison, younger patients experience less of self-stigma than the older patients as has been reported in preceding studies. The result of this is due to the inadequate level of insight experienced by the aged that also further shows the observed weak stigma associations in the age variations.Strategies for coping adopted by people who are not mentally upright can also be due to age and self-stigma. Instantaneously, a substantial variation from the coping strategies report suggested that older schizophrenic patients use such strategies to manage more practical symptoms effective compared to those used by young adults. As a matter of fact, further studies are still needed for ultimate conclusions. HypothesisResearch proposal on health locus as a mediator to self-stigma of health seekingResearch proposal on health locus, not as a mediator to self-stigma of health seeking

Purpose and Academic Rationale of the Project

This paper seeks to understand the role of self stigma in the society and its effects on decision making. An individual’s decision to seek treatment is affected by two vital effects that include public stigma that makes individuals view mentally ill patients as unaccepted socially in the community. The second perception of self stigma is that which is held by an individual that he is not socially accepted in the society. The two perceptions can make a person lose self esteem and self worth if the individual seeks psychological aid. Negative images by the public directed to the mentally sick make them feel inadequate and inferior. As a result, such people with self stigma that is higher will avoid psychological help from psychiatrists so as not to be viewed by the public as abnormal.

The study measures the self stigma’s function in predicting seeking for psychological aid feelings and the willingness to persuade individuals to inquire about counseling (United States, National Institute Of Education, Educational Resources Information Center U.S and National Library of Education, U.S 1975, 35). The objective of this study is to expand on the use of structural modeling that is structural to analyze if the hypothesis that health locus is a mediator to self stigma or vice versa. The research was as well based on other previous studies that explains reasoned actions’ theory. The theory explains that the willingness to seek aid from a mental illness expert is primarily determined by the individual’s attitude to the processes of psychological counseling. The attitude comes as a result of the evaluations expectations the person has towards psychological help seeking. On the basis of this research, the stigma’s perceptions should have influence on an individual’s attitude which should eventually push one to seek -for psychological aid.

Additionally, public stigma that has been perceived has influence on one’s attitude and willingness to seek psychological aid is gradually decreasing. The research hypothesize that self stigma will greatly reduce with health locus a mediator (United States, National Institute Of Education, Educational Resources Information Center U.S and National Library of Education, U.S 1975, 35). Self stigma is directly and positively related to stigma of the public, attitudes to counseling and self stigma are negatively related and attitudes and willingness seek counseling are positively related. Finally, differences between association of seeking for help and self stigma for men and women are potentially scrutinized as well as the factorial invariance of the sculpt between sexual category.

Methodology Design

The research technique is a scientific kind of study since it attempts to search for answers from participants (students) within a given locality which is London University. By using a correlation design approach, the researcher develops more than one variable in order to settle on the affiliation or co-variation between variables in order to conduct a quantitative research. The relations between variable, that are more than one, are examined without any manipulation in studies that are in correlation. Therefore, the primary data will be collected by conducting surveys. The survey instrument will be a questionnaire based on open -ended questions that are meant to target a given group of students within London University and within the stipulated time frame.For an effective and efficient report, the researcher must know what is being investigated and the time the report is to be complete. There must be emphasis on verification and testing by the researcher that focuses on reasons and facts. Questions such as are mentally ill people to be blamed for their disorders and if health locus can help mediate the problem are framed to target the participants. There were also non-involved participants observation of conducts as well as tests and experiments.In this paper, the associations among sexual category, both in the social stigma and the self-stigma an individual experiences for receiving psychological aid and attitudes toward help-seeking that is psychological have been scrutinizedParticipantsThe focus of this study was only on statistics taken from the interviewed students who were not mentally ill. The research had a design that was cross-sectional in which participants completed a survey that measured levels of self stigma, empowerment, resistance of stigma and how discrimination is perceived.

Members accepted to be part of the research after a vivid explanation was given to them on the benefits, risks and importance of the research study. The sample of this study was taken from fellow London University students. There were 60 students of a balanced ratio gender of 30 males and 30 females taken as the sample of the population in the study. Both the participants were undergraduate volunteers enrolled to study psychology at the London University. The members were composed of all the races in the university. There were two parts of the interview, the first included separation of the two balanced genders and a second conducted when the groups were jointly together. Ten students, six men, and four ladies, were eventually excluded from the interview because of their suspicion about the interview. The research’s primary aim was to get the views of both men and women on self-stigma and its effects and whether the locus of health provides any solution that can help the affected individuals.The participants were not only comprised of both the gender but also comprised of the victims or those who had been victims and applied locus of health. The group targeted was between the ages of eighteen to twenty-five (Association Of Research Libraries, University Microfilms, Xerox University Microfilms, and University Microfilms International 1964, pg74). Questions were directly and randomly asked, and their answers recorded in the data sheet without any bias. As a result, the researcher will have a close and intimate acquaintance with the participants.MaterialsInformation sheets and informed consent documents that contain the signatures, and the agreement of both the participants and the researcher were used. Consent document provides details of the basics of the research thus the participants were able to learn what the study entails. Measures for research ethics and debriefing reports are among the different kinds of materials that will be used during the investigation and interview time.Debriefing document provides a description of the study in a language that is not technical so that the participants would be able to understand. Moreover, the principal material, that was used in this study, is the survey questionnaire. In addition, a health locus of control scale was used. Moreover, the principal materials, that were used in this study, were the survey questionnaire and a health locus of control scale. The example of both scale and questionnaire are provided in the attached pdf. The scale and questionnaires involved brief and precise answers.ProceduresThe questionnaires were given to the fellow students who volunteered, and they filled them individually in order to attain primary data that is specifically for the research. Each participant was given a pack of survey with scales that measured self stigma, empowerment, resistance of stigma, discrimination that is perceived and details of socio-demographic. Every participant was required to return the questionnaires after writing down their answers. The pack also contained a sheet of information and details of contacts of the researcher should the participants wish to know much about the interviews later. They carefully read the instructions before embarking on writing on the questionnaires which were to have their perceptions and attitudes. The participants were well assisted by the researcher on how to deal with the questionnaire during the survey at the request of the participant.

They were not allowed to confer with each other during the answering of the questions as per the demand of the study. The questionnaires measured the participant’s attitudes towards locus of health as a mediator to self-stigma and vice versa. The independent variable of the locus of health as an arbitrator was also manipulated by allowing the participants to think about the causes of mental illness and whom to be blamed.Secondary data would be collected from steadfast secondary sources such as those from the preceding researchers. At the end of the interview, the participants were given the opportunity to ask questions after a thorough explanation from the investigator on the basis of the study. After the collection of data the research was compiled by developing research aim and objective, critically analyzing the secondary data, providing adequate detail about methodology, analyzing and discussing primary findings by testing the evidences according to variables along with concluding research. This whole study will be comprised of five chapters along with references and appendix.


Self Stigma of Seeking Help Scale (SSOSH)

The measurement of self stigma was done via Self Stigma of Seeking Help Scale (SSOSH). A 10-item scale SSOSH that consists of items such as “I would feel insecure if I went to a psychiatrist to seek for psychological aid.” Items are ranked on a point of 5 that ranges from a strong disagreement to a strong agreement where greater stigma is represented by higher scores. Agree and disagree are anchored in scale point of 3. The SSOSH has been indicated a factor that is one dimensional structure and validity evidence that is correlated with attitudes to professional help seeking and intent to look for psychotherapy.

Attitudes to Professional Help Seeking

Professional help seeking attitude were measured using Attitudes to Professional Psychological Help Seeking Scale. This is a revision of a 10-item which entails items such as “I would go to a professional expert if I believed I was having mental disorder.” Items are ranked from 1 (disagree) to 4 (agree) with positive attitudes being represented reflected by greater scores and negative attitudes represented by lower scores. The scale that is revised associates with problems of professional aid. For university students, the scale has a relation that is positive with the intent to seek psychotherapy and relates negatively with tendencies of concealing one’s self.

Seeking Counseling Inventory Intentionally

There should be developed interpersonal concerns to seek psychological counseling by a patient of mental illness. Seeking counseling inventory intentionally measures one’s willingness to seek for psychological counseling. The method applies a measure of 17-item in which in which participants were ranked from 1 (very unlikely) to 4 (very likely). A list of how likely the participants problems would be if they sought counseling aid from an expert was created. Problems such as difficulties in relationships, worries that are personal, depression and problems of drug were among the participants discussions (Association Of Research Libraries, University Microfilms, Xerox University Microfilms, and University Microfilms International 1964, pg74). The ISCI factor analysis supports the three subscale existence in the measure.

To reduce burden on participants, concerns of interpersonal and psychological subscales was used in the study. The ISCI has been found to associate with significance of perception among the university students and their attitude to aid seeking.

The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI)

ISMI is a scale of 29-item that is used in measuring experiences of the experts on self stigma. It comprises such subscales as social withdrawal, endorsement of stereotype, alienation and resistance of stigma. The ISMI reports have included reliability of test -retest and strong consistency that is internal. The most recent research recommended that subscale for resistance of stigma is apparently different to other subscales. As a result, resistance of stigma is well thought-out as a detach make to self stigma as is discussed in this paper. The average of the four subscales of ISMI summed up constitute self stigma.

Boston University Empowerment Scale (BUES)

BUES which is a version of 17-item was used to measure empowerment. It consisted of subscales of self efficacy/self esteem and power/powerless of the original scale in studies of the recent. The version has not been authenticated formally but still it demonstrates internal consistency that is adequate and that is why this research considered BUES relevant.

Social Contact, Related Illness and Socio Demographic Questions

Questions on socio-demographic and variables of social contact were completed by the participants as self report questions. Variables of socio-demographic were age, sex, education level, situation of housing, employment and income source among others (Livneh and Antonak, 1997, pg87). Variables of social contract were situations of living, status of relationship, family contact level and a friend’s presence among others.

The Scale of Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD)

A one-dimensional 12-item PDD scale is used to measure the extent to which an individual considers that people devalue mental illness patients. The scale is balanced in a way that high level of devaluation that has been perceived and discrimination is shown by reaching an accord with six of the items and disagreement with the other six portion. Since the scale has excellent properties that are psychometric, this study really benefited on it.

Scale Structure and Scoring

The SESE empowerment variables SR, PP, and PDD were recorded as variables that were binary. All subscales had internal consistency that were adequate within this sample of research. Resistance of stigma was not a vital self-determining predictor of self stigma. Above average of the study reported by participants indicated that quite a high number of individuals had resisted being stigmatized. As a result, there was a suggested requirement for further study to develop to develop this into a scale that is independent.

The study showed that those who had been diagnosed with depression had vitally self stigma that was of higher level score than those with a diagnosis of disorders that are related to bipolar. Alienation being the most highly approved self stigma element, this is in keeping with the facts that the public likes to distance themselves socially from those who are mentally disabled than from individuals who are depressed. Diagnosis was not however a vital predictor that is independent in the research’s waning analysis. People suffering from schizophrenia always experience self stigma of high level than people suffering from depression who also suffer from a higher level of self stigma than those with disorders of bipolar.

AnalysisThe undergraduate students, who voluntarily participated in the research study in their classes, were administered with data that is demographic and other scales by the researcher. To complete the study, both the participant and the researcher took roughly thirty minutes. The program of SPSS 16 was the method by which the study analysis was carried out. A t-test and analyses, that involves regression that is hierarchical, were well used in the process of data analysis. During the performance of the analysis that is regressively hierarchical, the researcher came up with variable blocks based on both logical and theoretical grounds. In order to establish if self-stigma had difference with respect to sex, a sample of t-test that is considered independent was carried out. In summary, self-stigma varied from one person to another.The findings of the quantitative data were analyzed in this study by identifying the levels of measurement through use of tabulation of data. Data tabulation provided the analysis of data in the form of frequency distributions as well as the percentage allocation. Furthermore, the study attempted to describe the data in accordance with findings analyzed in data tabulations. The analysis of data was accomplished by disaggregation of data. In this method, the data analysis process of this study was reasonable as well as advanced in the use of analytical methods. This is the proper way of analyzing quantitative data, and it will be used to achieve findings and draw a conclusion.

Ethical Considerations that the Project Raised.

An approval of full ethical deliberations was obtained in all the involved participants in the research within the London University Psychology Department. The researcher got permission to get the relevant information via a formal later from the Department of Psychology. The formal letter was then submitted to the psychology students, of whom 60 students of the total number, then volunteered to be involved in the research. The participants had information both in written and verbal form and the criteria for inclusion was then fulfilled. As a result, private rooms were used to collect data that was secret.

Procedures of Translation

Translation that was consistent and adaptation procedure that was cross-cultural were used to get information from other participants who could not explicitly express their views in English. The materials of survey were printed in different languages that the involved participants could understand with ease.

The translator’s first language to the participants was the target language and English was used as a second language. The translator had background information on the study’s objective to make sure that items’ understanding that is relative was realized. The translated materials of survey were discussed and reviewed thus disputed items were resolved. All these processes were followed in order to keep up with the established translation methods. The above procedurals made it easier for the study to discover that there are a variety of aspects concerning the self stigma concept.

ResultsAnalysis of hierarchical regression’s first-step results indicated that gender, though important, accounted for attitudes aimed at seeking psychological support indicated that both gender and self-stigma importantly and negatively predicted seeking of psychological needs (Association Of Research Libraries, University Microfilms, Xerox University Microfilms, and University Microfilms International 1964, pg74). Nevertheless, in the same study, the stigma of the public for achieving psychological aid was not a vital predictor of attitudes toward seeking psychological support.

As per the study results, there was a demonstration that males experience elevated intensity of both self and public stigmas related to seeking for psychological help than the females. The findings are dependable on earlier study results. The findings can be construed as females are less inclined by the depressing communal scrutiny associated with seeking help than males.

Limitations of the Study

Since the participants in the study were students of London University, a comparable study could be carried out with dissimilar age groups. Limitation number two is the nature of self-reporting of the study. The participants might not have mirrored upon their opinions regarding the self-stigma and attitudes connected with seeking for psychological help. This research was designed to present facts on the self stigma levels among the youth.

A coping style adoption based on privacy or abandonment has been related to self stigma that is greater. As a result, there is a suggestion that participants in this study have higher empowerment and lower self stigma than is characteristically present in people with mental illness as the participants were not patients (Lubkin and Larsen,2013, pg 54). It is not possible to compare this research findings with other researches globally as the participants involved in both the scenarios are people of different mental status coming from different backgrounds.In order to categorize which features influence one’s choice to search for psychotherapy, prospect investigations might look at the probable of additional variables. For instance, the apparent remunerations and dangers of undertaking psychological treatment, that could give detailed attitudes just before seeking mental assist, are viewed. In addition, another area for further study is to ask how efficient psycho-learning alters pessimistic attitudes toward the thought of psychological help-seeking into more optimistic ones.

DiscussionThe study objective as per this paper aimed at formative role of gender, and both the self and public stigmas linked with emotional aid-seeking in foreseeing thoughts toward psychological aid-seeking. Besides, the gender disparities with respect to the self and public stigmas connected with psychological help-seeking were investigated.The study’s findings showed that there is a major pessimistic fragile correlation between attitudes toward the public stigma and seeking for psychological help associated with psychological aid seeking. Additionally, the correlation result analysis showed there was to be a vital negative modest correlation between attitudes toward psychological help-seeking and sexual category. Again, the attitudes toward self-stigma and seeking for psychological aid associated with psychological help seeking indicated vital adverse outcome (Livneh and Antonak, 1997, pg67). The hierarchical regression analysis results depicted that self-stigma and gender linked with mental help seeking considerably foresaw attitudes toward emotional help-seeking.

Nonetheless, the public involvements should be designed and pertained in a way that will contribute to reducing the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Consequently, mental health professionals, in their clarifications or resources that include brochures may emphasize that having mental ill health is like any other sickness. Therefore, it should not be perceived as a personal weakness or as a situation for which one should feel abashed. They may try to change misperceptions that aim at misinforming the public about psychological management. By doing so, the professionals increase their ability to reach a higher number of people.The study found that participants who had watched individuals videotaped expressing optimistic attitudes to seeking psychological help also formed more positive attitudes toward psychological help seeking. Such participants were more liberal of the self-stigma linked with psychological help seeking. They were also more than willing to reveal their private information to a professional of mental health.

As compared in the study, two programs of a different nature showing a program that is theory-based was effectual in escalating alleged benefits of therapy and in plummeting the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Furthermore, it was discovered that both alternative and theory-based programs were effective in positively changing attitudes toward psychological help-seeking (Livneh and Antonak, 1997, pg87). It also reduced the stigma linked with psychological help seeking in possible patients. Psycho-education studies can be used in changing attitudes toward asking psychological help in individuals from negative to positive.Gender, as per the findings of this research, is a vital predictor of attitudes toward psychological aid-seeking. The females are more likely to have optimistic attitudes toward seeking psychological help. The findings were in line with preceding study results. The results of all the studies have indicated that males are more pessimistic to psychological help-seeking. The result of this is because males get precise communication such as not being emotional, having self-control, being powerful and depending necessarily on anyone’s help.

Therefore, values of being stigmatized cause unenthusiastic attitudes to the mental health treatment of disorders. However, the relationship between attitudes to psychological aid, sex, and both the self and public stigmas related with psychological help seeking have yet to be scrutinized directly (United States, National Institute Of Education, Educational Resources Information Center U.S and National Library of Education, U.S 1975, 35). As a result, the outcome of the present research may offer information on help-seeking in order to comprehend the level of importance of the self and public stigmas connected with psychosomatic aid-seeking on the attitudes to seeking psychological help for individual counseling. Being aware of whether thoughts to mental help may be envisaged by both the self and public stigmas linked with emotional aid-seeking may help researchers and psychosomatic health experts to recognize the involvement focused on overcoming issues of this nature.

Besides, classification of whether the self and public stigmas linked with psychological aid-seeking vary with reference to sexual category (Lubkin and Larsen,2013, pg 34). It provides vital data to be used in later studies aiming to reach males and females thus encouraging participants to seek psychological help. For that reason, this research’s primary objective is to categorize the function of gender, and both the public and self-stigmas associated with seeking psychological help in