Question 1

During our group work sessions, one of the main challenges that we encountered as group members that hampered our communication efforts was perceptual barriers. When we were involved in our group discussions, it was quite common for different members of the group to have different viewpoints, or opinions, and this proved to be a major barrier in effective communication. Differences of opinion mainly arose when we were dealing with questions that did not have straight forward answers, or when discussing our approach to tackling a specific challenge that we encountered in our work. In addition to that, there were triggers and cues that contributed to creating barriers towards communication. For instance, the approach that people undertake when saying something such as their tone and volume, as well as the non-verbal cues such as the facial gestures and body language of our group members at times affected the flow of information between different members of the group.

To address this problem, the group leader created a system in which whenever there is an argument between different members of the group, each will be provided with an opportunity to argue their cases. After they present their main arguments, the group leader will ask the other group members to chip in, and if there is no verbal consensus, a vote will be used to make a decision on deciding which of the two issues will be selected. In terms of verbal and non-verbal cues we decided as a group that we will not bring emotions into our arguments and discussions. This means that if a group member feels that he or she is becoming angry because an argument, or discussion is not going their way, then they will be allowed to step out for a few minutes and then come back and proceed with the discussion. These measures proved vital in terms of addressing the issues that we had as a group.

The second communication issue was cultural barriers based on group members cultures and religious backgrounds. For instance, people held, or had a difference in understanding a concept based on their religious beliefs especially in terms of organizational behavior. There are students who used their religious beliefs, and what they believe in their culture to determine what is right and wrong in relation to organizational behavior. To address this issue we decided that our main points of argument should be based on what is stated in our classroom materials rather than the personal opinions of the group members. This means that if it aligns with personal beliefs and an individual’s cultural background, then we will support it. However, if it does not then we will not support it, to avoid having a barrier towards effective communication within the group members when working on a class assignment.

Question 2


In Vroom’s Expectancy theory, it mainly emphasizes on rewards or payoffs that the employees will achieve. This can be explained using valence whereby an employee expects to receive a certain form of reward after achieving the set goals. This means that, an employee will expect to receive gift-certificates, pay bonuses and employee-of-the-month awards for performing at a certain level, or achieving the set goals by a company.

Employee performance will be based on self-interest. This means that the employees who will perform at the highest level will be the ones who want to achieve maximum satisfaction, while at the same time minimizing the dissatisfaction levels.

In this theory, the focus will be on expectations and perceptions. To put it into perspective what is considered real, or actual in this case is immaterial. The employees will have the faith that better efforts in relation to their work will contribute to better performance. The expectancy of the employees will be influenced by different factors such as having the right skills to perform a job, availability of the right, or appropriate resources and getting the required support to actually complete the job.

In this theory, the focus will be on the psychological extravagance whereby the final objective for an individual is to achieve maximum pleasure and the least pain.


Using the expectancy theory, it seems to be mainly idealistic because there are few individuals who perceive that there is a high degree of correlation between increasing their level of performance and the rewards that they are accorded.

There is also the high likelihood that the rewards that are provided by the employers do not correlate with the goals of the employees. This means that the incentives provided do not align with what a majority of the employees want, and this may contribute to the performance of the organization not reaching the level that the employer wants despite using extra resources to motivate the employees.

Better Reward System

To develop a better reward system, the employer has to ensure that, the incentives that they are providing to the employees are in-line with their expected goals. Secondly, they have to create a work environment whereby the employees believe that by improving their level of performance it will contribute to the outcome, or the goal that they want. This means that, the employers should assess the goals that the employees want as it may not necessarily be money, or material things. Having a better understanding of the short-and long-term goals of the employees will help the employer develop, or introduce incentives, which will motivate them. This can be achieved by asking the employees to list their work goals and then designing a reward system based on the responses of the employees. Secondly, it is best to create a working environment whereby the employees will feel that if they put in their best efforts, then they are likely to achieve a high level of performance that will ensure that they achieve their goals. In addition to that, performance should be measurable so that the employees are aware if they have met, or failed to meet the level of performance that will warrant a specific form of reward.

Question 3

Dubai Islamic Bank has earned the reputation of being an employer of choice for employees that want to work in the banking sector. The reason for this is that, it has developed a diverse and inclusive work environment, which offers outstanding prospects for all the employees that work in the institution. In addition to that, the bank has a progressive talent management approach, which has created exciting career plans for its employees and opportunities for professional advancement that align with the individual goals of the employees who are recognized as they key asset of the firm.

Dubai Islamic Bank follows the Sharia-law principles in relation to according the customers the different banking services that they need. In following the Sharia law, it means that the bank does not engage in banking services that will involve the receipt, or payment of interest. However, this does not mean that the bank does not engage in practices that will maintain financial viability. This means that the bank still offers savings and investment products to the depositors that will offer similar, or competitive returns as those that are available in conventional banking. An important point to note is that, the Dubai Islamic Bank does not offer banking services that are related to any form of gambling services, and this also extends to most of the financial speculation exercises.

The bank upholds the following values in terms of the services that it provides to its customers. First, it is an all-inclusive bank. This means that its services have been designed in such a manner that they are accessible to all people that seek them. In addition to that, they have been designed to be provided in such a manner that different customers despite their social status will not be exposed to any form of bias. Secondly, it is a collaborative establishment. This means that the employee personnel in this establishment are well connected as a team to deliver the right banking services with ease. Thirdly, the bank offers banking services that are considered to be agile. In this case, it is inclined to deliver fast solutions and provide happy experiences for all the customers. In addition to that, it is a responsible establishment. This means that the company utilizes the fair, transparent and accountable processes when making responsible decisions in line with their customers.

The organizational culture of the bank has contributed to the bank being highly successful. For instance, by being an employee-centric bank means that it has aligned its organizational goals to those of the employees. The employees are motivated to perform at a high level because they are motivated. This means that the financial and non-financial incentives that the bank has focuses on the aspirations of a majority of the employees. The bank is able to attract top-level employees and because of their knowledge, expertise and high-performance levels, the bank is able to develop a competitive advantage over its business rivals. Secondly, as this is a bank whose practices are determined by religious beliefs, it can attract investors who do not want to be exposed to illegal activities. It will ensure that the bank is able to develop a high level of competitive advantage over its business rivals as the people who use the banking services have been attracted to the bank because of it using Sharia Laws to determine the bank services that it will offer. Finally, the bank has gained a positive reputation of treating its customers in an unbiased manner despite their financial positions.

Question 4

In terms of positional power, I can state that I had little authority in this subject in terms of directing other students to getting things done. The reason for this is that, I had no status, or a different position in comparison to the other students in the class. Simply put, I was just a student attending this class, and positional power is based on an individual’s title in a specific setting. The individuals who have positional power in a specific subject are tutors, teaching assistants and class representatives. On the other hand, I felt that I had some form of personal power in this subject. This can be attributed to several factors such as my expertise level in this subject. A majority of the students in this class felt that I was more knowledgeable about different concepts in this class than they were and this led them to accord me some form of personal power. In addition to that, due to the confidence that I have on my academic abilities, and the positive attitude towards learning, it has helped me to become a better student who is willing to learn, and this has ultimately improved my overall knowledge in terms of what we were learning in this subject.

There is always room for improvement, and I will strive to improve both my positional and personal power. In terms of positional power, I will strive to at-least be provided with a role by the teacher, or students in the classroom setting such as the class representative, or group leader in case we form groups for classwork purposes in other subjects. I then be in a better position to assign the group members tasks that they will do to ensure that we successfully complete our group work projects. I will be in a position of influence, which I will use successfully to assist my classmates in terms of improving their overall level of academics. This will be achieved by understanding the students’ strengths and weaknesses and assigning roles that will maximize on their strengths while focusing on addressing some of the challenges that they may face especially from an academic setting. My intent in terms of developing and utilizing positional power is to improve my group members academic scores in the subjects where I will be a group leader. In terms of personal power, I will ensure that I develop a sense of expertise and overall confidence in different subjects so that the other students see the need for me to be their leader, and assist them academically. I believe that by performing well, it will gravitate other students towards me and they will feel that I have the skills, and great academic background to lead them. To put it in perspective, the development of my personal power will positively contribute towards achieving positional power in the future subjects that I engage in.