DPE and Goal Instruction





DPE and Goal Instruction

The development of impairment which affects the ability of a person to effectively learn and make good use of information is known as intellectual disability. Some intellectual abilities begin at an early stage and go ahead into adulthood. Some children with intellectual disabilities end up carrying it into their late stages of life. people with intellectual disabilities can take part in almost every aspect of life, but sometimes need help when learning tasks, adapting to changes and routines, and overcome other barriers that arise in his daily life. Those hindrances faced by people with intellectual disability usually come as a result of their slow process of understanding and hence the body functioning is slowed or affected in another way. Young people and children have different forms and rates of development. Therefore, some children may find learning easy and enjoyable while others may find it difficult and discouraging. Most of those who have problems with learning have intellectual disabilities. This document discusses the diagnosis, prescription, evaluation and analyses goal instruction, as well as implementation and development of goal (Licia).

Learning for people with intellectual disabilities

When one has an IQ level that is less than 70, the probability of having development disability is so high. People with development disabilities have problems in their daily life skills such as interaction with other people, communication, and caring for themselves, especially before they attain 18 years of age. Every person has distinct character traits. These unique traits come as a result of differences in areas of difficulty and ability, personality, and much more. From a general point of view, people with intellectual impairments are slower in learning than people with normal intellectual capacities. This makes them have difficulties when working on normal concepts like money and time, understanding ways of relating with people, conducting themselves well and much more. Needs for people with intellectual impairments depend on the level and type of impairment. Intellectual impairments take n different classes. They include mild, moderate, severe, and profound intellectual disability levels. The various levels of disabilities get classified according to the IQ scores. Researches in intellectual behavior propose that people must know the IQ score of person with intellectual impairment for easier identification of requisite needs and attention that such level calls for.

Diagnosis and prescription of children with intellectual disability

Identification of intellectual impairments in children takes many forms, but the most common way is checking the level of IQ. The boundary between intellectual ability and disability is a score of 70 on the IQ. One below this level is taken as intellectually disabled and needs training that will help him adapt to his environment. Intellectual disabilities get categorized according to a person physical and social development. The upper range score category falls between 53 and 57. Majority of people with intellectual impairment fall in this category. They have the ability of learning academic and prevocational skills through training. The other group is moderate category. It is composed of people with IQs between 36 and 52. Persons in this category are capable of learning basic educational skills and do semi-skilled job under control. The other category comprises those with scores of between 21 and 25. They care for themselves under constant control, but their communications skills are limited by their disability. The last category is that of those with profound levels of impairments. It is composed of people with IQ scores that range between 0 and 25. Small number of people falls within this category. They show very little responses and their institutionalization is inevitable. IQ scores for people with impairments are further categorized according to the learning abilities. These are: educable, which lie between 50 and 75, trainable, which lie between 25 and 50, and custodial, which lie between 0 and 25 (Maria and Bruner).

Before one is pronounced as having intellectual impairment, one has must pass through a formal assessment. The form assessment is usually administered by a psychologist or a counselor. Formal assessment involve collection of data about the individual from various stakeholders; doctors, teachers, therapists, child center, school, as well as personal observation and interaction with the child. Intellectual testing includes taking the child through many tasks such as naming pictures, answering questions, and solving problems and puzzles.

Disabled children learn and develop skills, though at a rate different from that of normal children. Often, children with intellectual disabilities need more time and dedication for practice than normal children of their age group. Once a child is deemed disable by a psychologist or counselor, more support is thrown towards the child not only at school, but also at home so as to enhance her life. For education, there are various options for more help. This includes use of assistive technology in mainstream classes. Moreover, speech therapists, occupational therapists, and psychotherapists offer a lot of help to the child.

Goal instruction for students with intellectual impairments

Teaching children ways of regulating or modifying their behaviors is one of the strategies used for student learning. Self-regulation of behavior is one means of enhancing and promoting self-determination. This is an internationally valued outcome. Moreover, social inclusion of students in many sectors and inclusive education is very important strategy for child growth. Mixing disabled children with those without problems is a common practice today. This gives the disabled children a sense of self-esteem and belonging as they fell that they get judged by the same yardstick with their peers.

Teams concerned with Individualized Education Program (IEP) must set goals for students diagnosed as disabled. Students with intellectual problems normally have broad goals, which relate to social and behavioral areas. Special education teachers should set goals for their students and make sure that the goals get attained within a certain period. This will help the student in meeting their adulthood demands. The various adulthood demands may include personal interaction skill development, self-care, personal safety and maintenance, participation in community projects, decision making, independence in life, and much more.


From the foregoing discussion, it is clear that disability is inevitable. People are born with different forms of disabilities. The document has analyzed intellectual disability, which is impairment in understanding. Intellectual impairment gets detected when one has an IQ score of less than 70. People with disability have roles in society. These roles are achievable, but only through help. Children with disability need assistance both at home and school so that they can attain their ambitions in life. Educational institutions get charged with responsibility of ensuring that students with difficulties get a fare share in education. Today, inclusive education is on the rise. Students with disabilities get mixed with normal students so that they can enhance each other.

Works Cited

Tatto, Maria T, and Justin Bruner. Learning and Doing Policy Analysis in Education: Examining Diverse Approaches to Increasing Educational Access. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2012. Internet resource.

Carlson, Licia. The Faces of Intellectual Disability: Philosophical Reflections. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010. Print.