Designs of goods and services

Designs of goods and services


Institutional Affiliations

Literature Review of Designs of Goods And Services

Designing has several perspectives and meanings. In general, designing can be said to be a communication process. Designing has a basic function of conveying information about an organization or a product to the clients or customers. Design is used in the description of designer furniture, designer jeans and premium products (Shove, 2007).  Most of the countries characterize their products with their designs like: German cameras, Swiss watches or Italian cars. Everywhere we stare, we notice the works of designers. The hands of the designers shape the products people buy, value and use. The sensibilities of the designers guide the filling and look of their image communication surrounding us. Design is the intersection between culture and commerce, between the environment and an individual. Designs tend to exemplify respect between materials and maker, between ultimate user and maker. Design is more than a career or even a job but on the other hand, the rapidly changing, increasingly international economy provides plenty of opportunities. Relatively, designing is a commitment and an ultimate way of life (Marshall, 2012). 

Whenever the word design is used by marketers, they refer to advertisements, point of purchasing materials, labeling of packages and the yearly reports. Design is a complete word that covers all the disciplines of interiors, fashions, graphics, products designing, packaging and publications. The other fields that should also be included in this list are the industrial and architecture fields. Design covers a wider range of activities from marketing and styling from the soft end to materials technology at the hard end. The difference between visual and functional design is the difference between design of a wall paper and the design of nuclear power plan.

In the situation of design as communication agent, it is vital to understand the manner in which a meaning is conveyed to the consumer through design. Design aligns an organization or a product with that of the customer’s self anticipation or reflection. The full meaning of design is interpreted by the consumers depending on their attitudes, preferences and personal experiences. The fact that a product is preferred by two or many consumers does not suggest that they like the product for similar reasons. The critical tasks the designers have is to design their packages of stimuli in such a way that it reasons with the information that is already stored with individuals thereby inducing the desired behavioral effect or learning (Sanders & Huefner, 2012). 

Design can be distanced as a technique used in communication strategy (environmental and graphic design) and the design used in product development strategy (product and packaging design). Whatever the last output, design as an innovation technique, is a constant problem solving activity. Product packaging and design are communication devices and are also tools used for the strategic development of new products. In order for design to be considered as an effectual management of innovation technique, it has to build value. The signs like: products or graphics conceived by designers must be profitable (Marshall, 2012). 

The sign value can therefore be defined as the equation of devise performance competence. Marketing and design are all concerned with the exchange relationship between a company and its surrounding. The performance aspect of design is the process where the designer gathers information through market research so as to be able to understand and determine the needs and wants of the targeted market. Designers are always charged with the responsibility of developing skins that supplement the product in ways that may never have been known by the customers.

Design and Marketing Perception

Design is the illustrated expression of the market perception. Through research, designers are able to determine what is needed by the targeted market. Then the designer is able to translate that into environments, products, corporate identity information for the customer. This translation is done by using the elements of durability, cost, appearance and quality. By nature, designers are often concerned with the fundamental properties of raw materials in a product, not for what the raw materials are but for what they might be turned into in terms of accomplishing or satisfying consumers’ needs. Design expresses the producers’ outward regard for both the product produced and the customers. Good designs express civility on behalf of the firm to the customers (Coles, 2007). 

A company must think of itself as purchasing, producing and satisfying customers’ needs and not as producing goods and services; the approach should infuse every cranny and nook of the firm/organization. If the approach does not infuse every cranny and nook of the organization, then there is no amount of efficiency that can be used by the organization to compensate for the lack. A marketing concept can be described as the coordinated activities that enable an organization to achieve its goals and objectives and satisfying customers’ wants and needs at the same time. The major aim of marketing concept is customer satisfaction. The key to achieving organizational goals is the marketing concept. These goals can be achieved by determining the wants and needs of the targeted markets and delivering the preferred satisfaction more efficiently and effectively than other organizations (Marshall, 2012). 

Designing and Selling Instruction

When a better understanding exists between marketing and designing managers, it can result to improved corporate performance and greater job fulfillment for all that are involved. Design is a special skill when compared to finance and accounts and it is an element of business that should be well managed like any other element of a business. The question that arises is the possibility to convince designers to become managers or are the managers trained to be sympathetic when it comes to design, or whether new specialties of management are created specifically for design (Marshall, 2012).  Higher education can be used to answer these questions. Lack of mutual understanding, between people who surface from segregate field of management and design have been perpetuated by Higher Education. The problem is dual. First comes lack of information concerning technical knowledge and methods of the other and secondly, the gap that exists between the combined culture of the two groups. At its baldest, the major problem is that, in management courses, the product is either ignored or taken for granted. In the design courses, the substantial objective itself is vital but the background of its marketing and production tends to be ignored (Sanders & Huefner, 2012). 

The difference between design and management education is both an outcome of different apprehension therefore leading to nonexistence of transfer of technical knowledge between both fields and more intensely, a demonstration of two distinctive cultures. Management education is more concerned with business functions that are associated with controlling like: cost analysis, descriptive statistics, accounting, presentation of products to the consumers and market analysis. The design education is majorly concerned with creativity. The major requirement while teaching design to marketing managers and marketing management to designers is the development of mutual lexicon between the designers and the marketing managers. This is vital as it helps with the nurturing and understanding of the values and processes of harmonizing discipline, this is a very big and important task for the designers in order to be able to take their part in the market (Marshall, 2012). 

The Design Firm Management recently reported that the industry is facing pressures so as to change from a craft shop to a multi disciplined services. Many of the students who graduate from designs schools today are neither prepared neither to participate nor to compete in the design market. The educations they undergo have largely been vocational; preparing the students on how to get jobs but not teaching them on how to solve problems. There are serious complain in the market that most of the young designers lack basic knowledge on business like: cash flow, budgets, staffing and overhead. Even the best business schools are also facing harsh criticism as they have grown rigid, complacent and smug. Worse of all, the schools fail to address the vital managerial issues. The business leaders of today need to poses three basic talents: solving of problems, accomplishment and farsighted and capitalist talents. Today, business schools are beginning to teach students the human side of business by shifting their emphasis to include subjects like cultures, communication and foreign languages. Other subjects that should also be taught are accounting standards, marketing and financing (Coles, 2007). 

Design and Marketing Concept

Designing of products involves a visual expression of a marketing concept. In most cases, the designers generally starts by determining and scanning the environment on what the target market may want and after which it is then translated back into products, or a corporate identity using the various performance elements. Many designers are today concerned with properties of raw materials in a product, not for what they actually are, but for what they wish to become in regards to satisfying the customers’ needs. Design of products can be said to be the only means of outward expression of the manufacturers regard for the products produced or manufactured as well as for the consumer. Therefore, good design is said to be an expression of considerateness for the organization to the consumer. Companies on the other hand should learn on how to think for themselves not for producing goods and services but also consider factors such as buying and satisfying the customers’ needs (Sanders & Huefner, 2012). 

This approach is significant and therefore, it should permeate every corner of each organization. According to Kotler, he argues that, the main aim of marketing concept is to ensure that all the customer are fully satisfied in regards to what products they may require in the firms. He further described the concept of marketing as the key to which most managers can use so as to achieve the set organizational goals and objectives along with determining the needs of the target markets. Research also shows that most consumers prefer doing businesses with those companies who genuinely cares about them and provide them with a quality services, therefore, designing of those products may be a subtle, as well as, a genuine expression of caring for those costumers (Sanders & Huefner, 2012). 

Design and Marketing Mix The main aim of organization to design products is to ensure that they provide a strategic competitive advantage as well as to achieve the set corporate goals and objectives. Therefore, designing of the products will definitely provide the customers satisfaction along with enhancing a corporate performance such as the marketing mix and marketing environment components. High quality design is significant in providing information and communicating with the consumer that is through the product, marketing communications, and corporate identity. Research has also shown that the components of marketing mix and the marketing environment can be affected positively through an implementation of design and differentiating strategy. The various examples of marketing mix and marketing environment affecting strategic decisions for a competitive advantage in organization include;




Place and,


The above named components are design-driven and each has the ability or potential of influencing the perceptions of the consumers and buyers. Designs are significant in giving the companies a competitive advantage both in marketing environment and in marketing mix. It communicates the position of the company such as political, legal and regulatory forces and is dynamic in response to issues regarding economic, technological and societal forces that confront organizations. Designing of products in an organization communicates the information regarding a certain company or the products by the use of marketing mix and marketing environment which then provides the consumer satisfaction along with enabling the corporations to achieve their set goals and objectives (Marshall, 2012). 

Design and Marketing Strategy Design has become a powerful tool particularly for the managers. Most managers use design in selling their products by communicating with their consumers. For example, organizations may use to promote their goods and services through advertisement and public relations. Design tends to create satisfaction for consumers and profits for the company and is essential to strategic marketing planning. Conversely, most companies also like to differentiate their products to the target markets. A product differentiation strategy involves the alteration of perceptions so as to result in a state of product differentiation. The product differentiated should be perceptible and meaningful to the consumer for it to have a differentiating effect. Presently, most companies differentiate their products through product features; that is the values different from those of competitors’ products. However, many marketers have yet to realize the value that design adds to their products and companies and see it as a frill and not as a strategic tool (Coles, 2007). 

Design Management

Design for the management purposes can be defined as a creative activity which involves all the designers such as the architects, the engineering designers, the graphic designers, the industrial designers and other individuals who have the ability to devise as well as to elaborate on the different products packaging and their display. In addition, the management, particularly for the designing purposes has been interpreted to range from overall control of innovation of the activities carried out within the firm which include activities such as the identity of the corporate identity, the designed product strategy, as well as, design and development. Therefore, the design managers should be at all responsible for coordination and giving direction on how the products should be designed to meet the target market and satisfy the needs. The four levels of design efforts for the organization include the products, environments, information and the product identity (Shove, 2007).  The first level of design efforts in organization is the product; product has become the most important and immediate concern for many managers in any organization. For this reason, the managers should ensure that this level includes all the activities that involve the market research input all through the start of a detailed product specifications as well as, designing, until manufacturing is fully completed.

It is therefore advisable for the organizations to ensure that they have a clear sense of belonging for them to be effective and efficient when delivering services to their customers. The managers also as well need a strong sense of belonging in all the activities that the organization does so as to be affirming of their identity. The Products that the companies market on the other hand should project the products standards and values. Design management should have a wide range of skilled training and knowledge which will be effective and efficient however, this does not completely explain the reasons as to why few companies utilize and manage design effectively (Sanders & Huefner, 2012). 

When designing the product and services for the customers, the organization should understand the differences between the managers and designers. For example, managers have a critical and analytical frame of reference, while the designers mainly stick various things together in order to get the desired results; in addition, the designers are better at synthesis as opposed to analysis. Managers on the other hand are problem-oriented and are able to see the difficulties; whereas the designers are solution-oriented and have the ability of seeing the opportunities. Other differences include, managers are inert and designers on the other hand are rash. However, the differences in perception and skills are examples of what make both the managers and designers to be important to one another at organizational level. According to Kotler, he cites the design illiteracy and organization politics as the main reasons why executives fail not to be more effective design managers. He then manages to suggest a two-way education process to distinguish the differences for both the designers and managers to help improving this relationship. Conversely, the marketers along with the designers can be split into two groups on the subject of design practice; functionalists as well as, stylists (Sanders & Huefner, 2012). 

The functionalist orientation is mainly based on putting better functional performance and quality into the design. Designers should know that the key to customer satisfaction as well as, repeat sales is not necessarily attracting the initial purchase, but it also include providing a long-term satisfaction for those customers. In spite of other factors such as cultural, behavioral, and intellectual differences existing between the designers and managers, the most basic reason for misunderstanding one another can be as a result of lack of exposure in ones’ philosophical foundations in their education (Shove, 2007).  From the different researches done, it is noted that there is a gap that has been existing between designs and marketing education, however, both the education and training of the managers are based on some analytical studies. All organizations can benefit from use of an integrated design at all levels of operation such as product, environment, information and the corporate identity (Coles, 2007). 


Coles, A. (2007). Design and art. London: Whitechapel.

Hauffe, T. (1996). Design. Hauppauge, N.Y: Barron’s

Marshall, A. (2012). The surprising design of market economies. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Niku, S. B. (2009). Creative design of products and systems. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Sanders, G. L., & Huefner, R. J. (2012). Developing new products and services: Learning, differentiation, and innovation. New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017: Business Expert Press.

Shove, E. (2007). The design of everyday life. Oxford: Berg.

Tennant, G. (2002). Design for Six Sigma: Launching new products and services without failure. Aldershot, Hants, England: Gower.