Design a Sexual Health-care Service Project

The Name of Class (Course)

Professor (Tutor)

The Name of the School (University)

The City and where it is Located

Date of Submission


TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc386651010 h 2Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc386651011 h 2Patient Centered Health Service PAGEREF _Toc386651012 h 2Reflective Practice Component PAGEREF _Toc386651013 h 4Interpretation of the theory PAGEREF _Toc386651014 h 5Application of the Theory into Practice PAGEREF _Toc386651015 h 7Reflection and Critical Review PAGEREF _Toc386651016 h 13Enterprise component PAGEREF _Toc386651017 h 14Interpretation of the Theory PAGEREF _Toc386651018 h 16Application of the Theory into Practice PAGEREF _Toc386651019 h 18Reflection and Critical Review PAGEREF _Toc386651020 h 22Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc386651021 h 23Reference PAGEREF _Toc386651022 h 24

IntroductionIn the healthcare industry, provision of services that is centered on patients is grounded on a set of persuasive and consistent characteristics that have an underlying capability of making it possible for patients recover well and remain healthy. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), patient – centered services can be described as a state of full mental, physical and social wellbeing. This definition does not merely consider the absence of physical disease rather it focuses on health. Thus, in the healthcare sector, a patient centered service entails medicine that is fostered on the mind and body of a patient in regards to their social context i.e. healthcare providers capitalizes on the bio- psychosocial model.

Working in the teams of five group members, the main aim of this project is to develop a research proposal for a patient centered health service that deals with one or more aspects of sexual health. The group shall develop a service for sexual healthcare through grounding its thesis on the reflective practice is an instructive guide. Similarly, the project shall utilize creative concepts comprised in the business world as a basis of formulating a brand and marketing the service at a multi-cultural team.

Literature ReviewPatient Centered Health ServiceDesigning healthcare services that is solely focuses on the patients can prove to be challenging at intervals. This is because model presents a paradigm that is contrary to the prevailing physician centered approach, which is also widely known as the disease focused approach of health services. Additionally, the other challenge stipulated in the formulation of healthcare services that centers is focus on patients is the fact that it addresses the entire health and illness spectrum through services that intermixes diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation. The relevance of this patients centered medicine is that its outcome enhances the long term sustainable health. The other dimension of patient centered healthcare service is that medicine is described by the actual needs of the patients rather than what the physicians do. Thus, any healthcare provider i.e. nurses, social workers, psychologists, etc. who helps patients in recovering from their illnesses and staying health is adequately practicing medicine.

In order for the patient centered service to be considered adequate, it should be as effective as described by whose comprehensive definitions. For instance, in the sexual healthcare sector, proper treatment of a genital infection does not mean that the service provided is effective. Rather, its effectiveness can be determined if the patient(s) have been correctly been advised on how the diseases is acquired, how it is treated and/ or prevented. Health effectiveness in this case entails addressing the mental and behavioral issues lurking the reason why an individual contracted the infection in the first place.

Moreover, the patient centered service should also be efficient in that the process of getting well should be made as easy as possible. This thus entails undertaking steps such as enacting health effective services, keeping easy access to materials such as medical records, treatments, etc., capitalizing on advance technologies to improve communication and medication for patients, etc. Additionally, every healthcare worker providing services to patients should be competent to their area of expertise. This is to ensure that the ethics of healthcare provision is maintained as every healthcare provider sticking to their line of medical operation.

Reflective Practice ComponentIn the healthcare sector, reflective practice can be described as a way utilized by healthcare workers to critically evaluate their work with the aim of improving their perfomance. The significance of reflective practice is that it ensures that doctors, nurses and other health care workers continue learning throughout their careers and line of profession. Furthermore, through this learning the efficiency of healthcare providers is enhanced making them relatively more qualified and proactive professionals. This is because the reflective practice fosters on the improvement of quality through bridging the gap between theory and actual practice in the medical profession (Neumeier, 2003).

One of the major aspects of reflective practice is that it is closely linked to the action research study, which has gained populace over the last recent years. The main objective of action research study is that it facilitates practitioners to evaluate and study various aspects of their practice. This is regardless of whether the subject matter is in context of introducing an entrepreneur idea, or in regards to reflecting on an existing idea. The main focus in this case is to improve the practice at hand. In most cases, the process of action research is instigated on the setting of the researcher. According to Hargreaves (1996), the most effective setting is a research based practice. This is because not only is it satisfying to the practitioner but also effective.

According to study conducted by Schon (1983), an evaluation on how professionals go about resolving their professional problems was enacted. The respondents of the study were people from five different professions i.e. management, engineering, psychotherapy, architecture and town planning. The outcomes of the study revealed a rather straightforward fundamental premise i.e. people who acquire real time coaching and allowed to critically think through the process have a high capacity of learning in a profound way. The hypothesis put forward from the study supported Everett Hughes rationale that as a result for acquiring extraordinary knowledge in regards to great human relevance, society has granted these professionals an authority for social sovereignty in their field of specialization.

Similarly, it has enabled these professions to attain a high degree of independence in their practice and bestowed them a license to decide who shall adopt the mantle of professional authority. Nevertheless, the current atmosphere surrounding this concept is filled with controversy, criticism and dissatisfaction. This is particularly because recipients want to know why they should grant the professionals all those extra ordinary rights and privileges.

Interpretation of the theoryThe aim objective of the Schon’s research study was to evaluate how people learn. The viability of the study is that he utilizes respondents from various professions and provides his study with exemplary examples from various situations. These examples range from a music perfomance, to architecture and psychotherapy, etc. From the discussions of Schon’s study a lot of lessons can be derived on how individuals can learn in their line of expertise. Action research for instance, is a concept that can be utilized by an individual to create their own practice in a project as well as in other dimensions and facets of their academic work. Here, reflective practice can be enacted through action research in the course evaluation, curriculum design, and etc. (Zuber-Skerritt, 1992).

In this study, reflective practice and action research can be utilized in the process of designing a sexual health project to reinforce ideas and actions stipulated. The significance of utilizing this theory is that it provides the group members with a chance to reflect and evaluate their knowledge, ideas and practices being implemented in the project. Through interactions, reflective practice and action research will aid all the group members to improve their understanding on each other as well as on the project. This will help the group members to formulate the project in a better manner (Swann, 2002; Bentkowska et al, 2008).

Since the project is expected to present a degree of challenges to the group members, the use of action research and reflective practice will go a long way in overcoming these challenges. This is because through reflection, guidance on how a new initiative can be implemented effectively shall be bestowed. The approach shall enable the project to be influenced through construction and context. The reflective practice approach that shall be utilized in the project is classified into eight steps (McNiff et al, 1996). These are

The description stage: which defines what the project is and what the goals of the processes are

The planning stage: which elucidates the activities that shall be undertaken, the time schedule, budget, etc.

The research stage collects both primary and secondary data that are needed for the completion of the project

Action stage- describes how the patient centered service in the sexual healthcare sector shall be performed.

Observation stage- monitors all the variables and dimension of the project

Evaluation stage- takes into account the positive and negative outcomes of the project

Analysis stage- provides a discussion of the project accounting what the implications of the outcomes are, what the limitation and strengths of the project are, etc.

Reflective Practice stage- entails providing a recommendation on what variables can be changed in order to improve the outcomes of the project.

The reflective process is such that whatever recommendations are highlighted at the final reflective stage, the feedback shall be imposed onto the first stage and the process shall be repeated again (Carr & Kemmis, 1986).

Application of the Theory into PracticeIn this project, reflective practice has been enacted into main ways i.e. the reflections illustrated by group members at individual levels and per group; and secondly through every step undertaken in designing the actual project. The design of project was commenced in a case study. Here, an evaluation was enacted on eight distinguished cases, after which the group members proceeded to conduct the secondary research. There are three main methods that were used to collect secondary data i.e. group members individually surveyed the sexual health care website of South Shields, North Shields, Newcastle, Sunderland and Durham. Group members also evaluated the service approach that was currently being utilized for treatment.

Secondly, we identified the gap that existed between the services being rendered to patients and the patients themselves. It was noted that the practice that was currently being utilized was one where only patients sought out the healthcare services. Moreover, there were no communication patterns and/ or networks between each other. Thus, the importance of improving the current situations between patients and the quality of services being provided to them was highlighted. Similarly, group members saw the importance of developing ways in which patients would be encouraged to come and seek for the healthcare services.

The third step of the project was to identify and determine the targeted audience of the sexual healthcare service being formulated. Here, it was determined that the main target audience of the project is patients suffering from all types of sexual illnesses. This is was to ensure that the project did not leave out patients suffering from varying forms of sexual ailment. When the reflective practice was conducted on this step, it was noted that the audience for this project was relatively big. The group members sought to narrow down the targeted audience to ensure that the project becomes very significant to the type of patients that would be decided upon. The shortcoming of focusing on all the people suffering from various forms of sexual ailment is that it is the scope of the project will be relatively big. Thus, evaluating respondents with different sexual ailments can be relatively difficult. Furthermore, it will be more difficult to provide patient centered solutions as the minds of the patients in this case will be very diverse.

The main objective of this project was then altered and narrowed down to resolving the genital candidiasis sexual disease this is mostly found in women. Candida albicans is a type of fungus often found in minute amounts in the digestive tract, mouth, vagina and skin. In most cases, it hardly causes any symptoms or disease in the human bodies. However, symptoms of genital candidiasis can be imposed if one is pregnant, obese, diabetic or is undertaking an antibiotic dosage. Genital candidiasis, which is often recognized as a yeast infection is not a sexually transmitted disease, it however causes rash and/ or itchiness on the penis if an individual has sexual interaction with an infected partner. Below is a sample of respondent’s health record

Symptoms Peri Urban

N=100 (%) Malir

N = 98 (%) Maikl

N=99 (%) Manik

N = 85 (%) Total as reported in the medical records

N = 382 (%)

Yellowish Discharge 14.0 19.2 20.0 21.4 18.6

Whitish Discharge 95 81.2 85.9 76.5 84.4

Itching 17 15.3 7.1 7.1 11.5

Foul smelling discharge 34 22.4 20.2 26.6 25.9

Lower backache 35 44.7 75.8 30.6 46.6

Lower Abdominal pain 43 18.8 45.5 11.2 4.2

Burning Micturition 14 3.5 4 4.1 6.5

Dyspareunia 10 2.4 1 3.1 4.2

Fig 1: STI symptoms noted in medical records

Diagnosis Peri Urban

N=100 (%) Malir

N = 98 (%) Maikl

N=99 (%) Manik

N = 85 (%) Total as reported in the medical records

N = 382 (%)

Candidiasis 17 8.0 12.1 39.4 19.5

Trichomonas 13 49.4 19.2 15.2 28.3

Chlamydia 9 0 1 4 3.6

Cervitics 0 37.9 19.2 0 13.5

Gonorrhea 5 1.1 1 3 2.6

Bacteria Vaginosis 58 25.3 51.5 52.5 47.5

The design of this project is such that the patient centered treatment for the genital candidiasis problem is through enrolling in a treatment program. Here, the patients diagnosed with the yeast infection are required to register in the treatment program. The healthcare providers are the required to conduct a number of exams and test to diagnose the problem. Some of the signs that healthcare workers will be looking for include redness and swelling of the skin of the vulva on the cervix and in the vagina, dry white spots at the vaginal wall, cracks in the skin of the vulva, etc. For patients diagnosed with two or three of these symptoms a sample of their vaginal discharge shall be taken and assessed using a microscope. This form of test is known as KOH and wet mount tests (McKernan, 1994).

Treatment for genital candidiasis can be provided in several ways. Medications to treat this infection can be availed in either suppositories or creams. Other forms of treatment can be purchased without specified prescription. In this project however, the main goal for the design is to treat patients already infected with the genital candidiasis disease. The design also aims to increase awareness of the infection and to educate people on how they can mitigate the risks of infection and how treatment can be prescribed individually. Through the program people shall learn that is okay for them to treat themselves if:

They witness mild symptoms of the disease which do not have fever or pelvic pain

They are not pregnant

They are not worried about any sexual transmitted illnesses from their recent sexual encounter

They have suffered from the genital candidiasis before

Some of the medications that can be bought include Clotrimozale, Miconazole, Butocanozole, and Tioconazale. It is significant for patients who opt to treat themselves to read the packages carefully and utilize the treatment as directed. Additionally, patients should ensure that the finish their medications rather than stopping when the symptoms are assuaged.

Patients who are required to visit the treatment program may be provided with medications that run between three to seven days. The healthcare providers may prescribe a medication known as fluconazole that is ingested once in a day. Depending with the severity of a patient’s genital candidiasis disease, medications can be prescribed for a period of fourteen days. Nonetheless, medicines such as fluconazole or clotrimozale vaginal suppository pill may assist patients to prevent novel infections.

Reflection and Critical ReviewAs explained earlier, the hypothesis of this project is founded upon the case study conducted by Schon (1983). The outcomes of this study revealed that the best way that to learn a concept that influences a behavior is through self-discovered and self-appropriated learning. Thus, the design of the project was formulated in a manner that practitioners were allowed to work hand in hand with their patients in order to help them identify the cause of their infections, treatment and prevention from future occurrence. The project also aims to meet the various aspects of the patient centered treatment through ensuring that the respondent recovers easily from the ailments by addressing the mental and behavioral issues lurking the reason why the yeast infection reoccurs.

For instance, patients may be advised to ensure that they keep their genital area dry and clean. Patients are also advised to avoid cleaning these areas using soap and preffably use water only due to the neutral pH nature of water. Similarly, sitting in a bath that is warm rather than hot may help prevent the symptoms of the infections. If a patient is diabetic, they are normally advised to maintain their sugar levels under acceptable ranges. Again, women are encouraged to use pads as opposed to tampons. They can also opt to wear cotton innerwear or panty hose that is made of cotton crotch rather than innerwear that is made of nylon or silk. This is because the latter materials are not particularly absorbent and they also restrict air flow. Thus, this increases sweating in the genital areas which ultimately causes irritation.

In regards to designing the project several challenges were encountered. One of the earliest problems is that a lot of time was spent trying to identify what audience would best suit the design of the project. Secondly, the group faced the challenge of an unclear division of roles and responsibilities to be undertaken during the project. Thirdly, a design map on how the project should be undertaken was also not clearly formulated. The diversity in the ideas of all group members made it harder for a concise decision in regards to the project to be enacted.

In an individual level, some of the shortcomings that contributed to the unsuccessful completion of the project are that inadequate research was undertaken for the study. Thus, the data collected was neglible and insufficient to design a project on its basis. Language barrier was also the other challenge that I encountered as member of the group.

Enterprise componentIn the healthcare industry, the marketing variable entails identifying the needs of a patients and developing ways in which these needs can made. Good marketing entails carefully planning for the goals, strategy and missions for the activities to be undertaken. Secondly, it entails proper execution of these plans and strategies to attain the set objectives using the stated techniques and tools (Kotler et al, 2009; Kotler & Keller, 2001).

The critical aspects of marketing include targeted markets, market segmentation and positioning, marketing and distribution channels, customer value and satisfaction, business environment, competition, product offerings and branding, supply chain, etc. The managerial background of the project entails aspects such as leadership, concern for perfomance, good discipline, power base, consistent high values and hard work of employees, communication skills, effective work systems, sensitivity and enthusiasm, to interpersonal relationships (Kotler & Keller, 2009).

One of the core relevance of marketing in this project is to identify what the customer base for the project is. As highlighted earlier, the customer base for the project is the patients suffering from the genital candiasis infection. The main objective of marketing on the other hand, is to create interest and awareness on the product among the targeted customers. Similarly, marketing in project aims to build a brand in regards to the treatment program. There are three main ways in which a brand can be created i.e. brand resonance, brand positioning or brand value chain (Pitsaki, 2008).

Furthermore, a successful brand requires a plan i.e. a well written plan describing the future of the business, what the goals and objectives are how these factors will be achieved. There are several benefits that branding has in regards to this project. One of these benefits is that branding helps patients who are affected by the clubbing problem to know about the availability of a treatment program. Secondly, branding helps the healthcare organization to strategically position themselves so as to gain a competitive advantage. Thirdly branding helps the design of the healthcare treatment to be easily identifiable and accessible to the targeted consumers (Johnson, 2003; Pitsaki, 2010).

Building a branding identity to a product and/ or services is indispensible since it helps an organization define itself in regards to achieving its brand prospect and uphold its business principles while attaining its corporate missions. Moreover, branding identity is vital since the more meaning customer find your marketing, the more they will prefer to spend money for your output, and the bigger the customer loyalty will be for that preferred brand (Barrow, 2005).

In this project, brand identity can be achieved through answering the following questions

What are the vision and the mission for the output?

What are its unique attributes

What are some of the customer needs being fulfilled by the output?

What is its permanent crusade?

What are the values of the service?

What field of competence is the output comprised in?

What signs color and attributes makes the brand recognizable to the targeted consumers?

Interpretation of the TheoryIn the business world, service can be described as an intangible output involving a perfomance, deed or an effort which physically cannot be possessed (Dibb et al, 2006). Some attributes of a service include (Parasuraman et al, 1985):

Inseparability: They can be produced and consumed simultaneously

Cannot be separated from its providers

Consumers are involved in the process of production

Service provider influences the quality of service being provided.


Services cannot seen, tasted, smelled, heard or felt before they are bought.

To minimize uncertainty, buyers typically look for signals of service quality.


Quality of services is dependent on who provides them as well as when, where and how provided.

Difficulty of guaranteeing uniform service quality.


Services cannot be stored for later use or. sale

Less of an issue when demand is steady.

Price discrimination

Some of the factors that need to be attained by the project for this service to be successful include:

Access. Convenient locations and times with little waiting.

Credibility. Trust Service Company and staff.

Reliability. Consistent and dependable

Security. Service used without risk.

Responsiveness. Respond to customer problems / questions.

Tangibles. How well managed tangible evidence (décor, layout, staff)

Understanding the customer. Understands expectations.

Competence. Staff has required skills and knowledge.

Courtesy. Friendly and polite manner.

Communication: service described clearly and accurately.

In this project, healthcare services shall be administered to customers in three main ways. The first way is through the use of campaign. Here, the design shall utilize the word of mouth, customers, and advertisement using posters and electronic media to create awareness among patients suffering from yeast infection. Similarly, the campaign is aimed for all men and women since they are also at risk of contracting genital candidiasis. The focus of the campaign shall be to educate individual on how they can minimize the risks of contracting the infection. The campaign shall also focus on educating people on how they can impose treatment on themselves and how they can also capitalize on the treatment program stipulated by this project to treat all the genital candidiasis cases of patients.

Secondly, the design shall take advantage of volunteers who can mentor patients to take part in the treatment programs. Thirdly, the design shall create a social club for patients to meet and mingle with other people across the world. To the treatment program, the advantage of creating the social club will be to increase customer loyalty for the healthcare design. Furthermore, for the patients, this club shall be relevant since it ensures that treatment is enacted at reduced prices. It will also ensure that members of the club have free access to information regarding the genital candidiasis problems as well as other sexual health problems.

Application of the Theory into PracticeThere are several ways in which the value of a brand can be evaluated. First the each value chain of a product line can be evaluated in terms of the activities comprised within it to produce the product or service. Secondly, an evaluation of the linkage between each value chain of product line should also be enacted. Thirdly, analysis of the flow potential synergies among the value chains of various business units or product lines should be conducted.

In this project, the service provided has value because not only does it create a treatment program for people suffering from yeast infection it also creates awareness it also has a prevention campaigns, which educates all and sundry on how risks for the disease can be averted. The latter ensures that fewer people get ill through increasing awareness and ensuring few people need the treatment program.

The brand identity for the treatment retention program is ‘Know Yourself’ with a logo of a woman touching her lower abdomen. This is also the name that is bestowed to the service being provided in the program. The relevance of this brand is that it uses a name that is simple and self-explanatory to its audience. Similarly, it aligns the objective of the healthcare design to its mission. Since the objective of the ‘Know Yourself’ program is to provide treatment for patients suffering for genital candidiasis, and also create awareness among people.

The service provided via the treatment retention program also has loyalty card, which is given to patient who are register in our service. The provision of the loyalty cards is such that one can get via treatment, through bringing friends and/ or as a volunteer. When eight stamps are put on a patient’s loyalty card, they are eligible to get into the revised treatment prices for members in the club. They are legible to the wide variety of information provided through newsletters, magazine, healthcare libraries, etc.

Reflection and Critical ReviewThe main objective of the treatment retention program is to find and bestow suitable solutions for the patients. This is because it would make a great conception and provide a robust basis for better practices to be instigated. In the process of establishing a business model for the project all the members of the group have been given individual tasks to undertake. Some of the challenges that the team faces is to formulate the correct methodology for selecting the right choice for brand positioning. This decision mainly depends on the gap that is utilized i.e. how to alter the prevailing situations between patients and services. Additionally, the feature of the project’s brand is very distinct.

ConclusionFrom this project there are several lessons that have been stipulate. One of the key lessons that have been is the methods that can be used to identify existing problems and solved problems. For instance, the use of action research and reflective practice in the project has played an indispensible role of identifying short comings emanating throughout the process of the completing the project. The action research study held a critical role of evaluating current practice and identifying elements of change brought about by the designing the various professional practices. The process of this project is founded on evidence that enabled group members to make informed decisions rather than intuitive judgment and decisions.

This report has also enabled me to understand the significance of patient centered medical treatment and services. Unlike the other treatments where healthcare services are fostered on patients in general, the service provided by this project considers the unique aspects of patient’s needs. It considers factors such as the reasons for the sexual health problem, their varying capacities to overcome addictions, etc. Thus, rather than imposing medication and treatment for patients with generally similar symptoms, the unique aspect of patients is considered and treatment is provided accordingly.


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