Describe how data is transformed into information and how information is transformed into knowledge


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Describe how data is transformed into information and how information is transformed into knowledge. Provide examples of how software supports these transformations

Data is raw subject fed into a computer by a user. Data is transformed into information through message coding. The computer codes the information fed and translates it into useful data. For example, information about a person is made up of single data such as sex, age, address, and occupation. Information is transformed into knowledge through the coding process. Installed programs in a computer are used transform information into knowledge. Software supports transformations through effective programming processes using the computer language that understand the communication between data, information and knowledge (Shelly, Cashman & Vermaat, 2010).

Describe cloud computing. Explain three advantages and disadvantages for organizations that choose to use cloud computing versus owning and installing the software.

Cloud computing is a form of network computing model whereby a program installed in a computer depends on a server or servers located in a different place rather than on the local computing device such as a personal computer, tablet, Smartphone etc. A person using cloud computing connects to a server to perform different tasks and the process can run more than one computer at the same time (Furht & Escalante, 2010, pp. 17-19). For an organization using cloud computing rather that owning and installing software, these are the advantages and disadvantages.


Firstly, the organization will undergo less maintenance cost because the hardware, applications and bandwidth are managed by the server/provider. Owning the software leads to high maintenance costs because the organization will cater for software maintenance.

Secondly, cloud computing is always available to the public and are easily managed unlike personalized programs that might fail to work on some operating systems. An organization using cloud computing enjoys the effectiveness and efficiency of the system because it is less vulnerable to virus attacks.

Thirdly, the organization enjoys scalability because they only pay for the applications and data storage needed. Owning and installing the software requires the organization to cater for all costs including purchasing the software and maintaining data.


Cloud computing eliminates the aspect of taking total control over a company’s data because it is being processed by an external server. It leads to exposure of organization’s crucial information to the unwanted parties interfering with privacy.

Secondly, cloud computing does not accommodate every information stored from different organizations. Some computing restricts applications, operating systems, and infrastructure calling for an organization to own and install compatible software.

Explain the Five-Component Framework. Using Starbucks, explain how each component is used, be detailed.

The five components of a framework are:

Hardware: this refers to the machinery including the central processing unit (CPU). It is used to hold computer components together

Software: These are programs installed in a computer and are used to direct the hardware in order to produce useful information from data.

Data: These are facts used by computer programs to produce information.

Procedures: Policies governing the operation of a computer

People: People are used to influence the success or failure of information system by operating a computer system. They are also involved in maintenance activities (Shelly, Cashman & Vermaat, 2010).

Describe why relational databases are more efficient AND effective for data management in organizations. How does the task of restructuring the data help to achieve these goals?

Relational databases are designed to maximize efficiency of computer storage by preventing information duplication. Relational databases function as information scanners in a computer through coding each data fed into a computer and restructuring it to prevent duplication. Restructuring the data takes place through collecting of similar information and placing it under one copy.

Why is the security essential to the overall system plan for an organization? How do IS managers identify threats and vulnerabilities? Describe at least three types of threats that organizations face today

Security of information stored in a database if very essential because it contains personal private information that should not be shared in public. IS managers identify threats and vulnerabilities whenever they realize an unwanted authentication took place. In addition, threats and vulnerabilities are recognized when private information is leaked to the public, or when a manager realizes a certain program has been blocked by a user.

The main types of threats and vulnerabilities faced by organizations today are:

Errors and omissions: These are important threats to data and computer system integrity. Users omit important information while inputting data leading to serious risks of wrong information.

Fraud and theft: The new technologies have come up with various tricks that IT experts use to steal private information from a computer. These people hack other user’s passwords and access their information.

Employee sabotage: Employees make the organization more vulnerable to risks and threats through entering data incorrectly, sharing company information to third parties, deleting useful data, changing data, or crashing computer systems by introducing viruses (Kizza, 2013).


Furht, B., & Escalante, A. (2010). Handbook of cloud computing. New York: Springer.

Kizza, J. M. (2013). Guide to computer network security (2nd ed.). London: Springer.

Shelly, G. B., Cashman, T. J., & Vermaat, M. (2010). Introduction to computers. Mason, Ohio: