Descartes Skepticism

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Descartes Skepticism

Question 1.

Descartes skeptical arguments include unreliability of the senses argument, dream argument, and the evil genius argument. The skeptical argument is presented as if we know that a proposition about the external world Y is true, then we know the denial of the skeptical hypothesis (SH). But we don’t, or in the other sense we cannot know the denial of the skeptical hypothesis (SH), and therefore, we are not in a position or we cannot know the Y.

Question 2.

Descartes argument for the veracity of his clear and distinct perceptions is that all the knowledge is supposed to proceed from a clear and distinct perceptions and that no proposition is supposed to be judged as to be true unless it gets to be perceived in a clear and distinct manner. In an example that is thought to be clear and distinct, we need to be aware that we are not deceived by an evil demon, and according to Descartes, we can know this because we can know that God does exist and he would never allow an evil demon to deceive his people and nor would God deceive his people.

Question 3.

Theodicy refers to the explanation as to why God who is perfectly good, all knowing and almighty allows evil. Gottfried Leibniz defined theodicy in an attempt to justify God’s existence in light of the apparent imperfections of the world, that is the existence of good and evil in the world. According to his theodicy, Leibniz explains that the best way to of vindicating the justice and goodness of God in the face of evil is by reason and not by faith.

Question 4.

Kant’s Copernican revolution refers to the representation to which makes the object possible rather than the object to which makes the representation possible.

Question 5.

The four types of judgment according to Kant include a preori judgment, a posteori judgment, analytic judgment as well as synthetic judgment. A preori judgement are the type of judgement that are based on reason alone and thus are independent of all the sensory experiences. A preori judgments therefore only apply with strict universality. An example of a preori judgment is; all bachelors are unmarried. A posteori judgments on the other hand are grounded on the experience and therefore are consequently limited and at the same time uncertain in their application to the various cases. An example of a posteori judgment is; all bachelors are unhappy. The other type of judgment is the analytic judgment which refers to the judgments that have their predicates being entirely contained in their subjects, and this is because they add nothing to the concept of the subject. Analytic judgments are therefore purely explicative and thus can be deduced from the principle of non-contradiction. An example of analytic judgment is; all bachelors are unmarried. The fourth type contradicts the analytic judgment and this is the Synthetic judgments and refers to the judgments whose predicates are entirely distinct from their subjects, and therefore, they must be shown to relate due to some real connection external to the concepts themselves. The synthetic judgments tend to be genuinely more informative though they require justification by reference to some outside principle. An example of the synthetic judgment is; all bachelors are alone.

Question 6.

The core features of Kant moral theory are that the theory is based on the perception that human beings are unique due to their capacity for rationality. There is no other animal with the ability to reason upon their actions and thoughts, and it is this uniqueness that makes the humans to act in accordance with and for the sake of the moral law or duty. Human inclinations, emotions as well as consequences are believed by Kant not to play any role in the moral action, and therefore the motivation behind an action must, therefore, be based on the obligation as well as thought out before an action carried out. Morality should, therefore, provide the people with a guiding framework of rational rules that prevent certain actions that are independent of personal desires and intentions. The moral worth of an action according to Kant is determined by the human will that is considered good without any qualification.

Question 7.

The dialectic triad has three components that include; Thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. The thesis refers to the intellectual proposition; the antithesis refers to the critical perspective on the thesis while the synthesis tries to solve the conflict arising between the thesis and antithesis through harmonizing their common truths as well as developing a new proposition. An example of the thesis is communism; Antithesis is socialism and synthesis is capitalism.

Question 8.

Quality refers to the features or characteristic of an item while quantity, on the other hand, refers to the numerical value of an item that is the number. The relationship between quality and quantity in dialectical thinking is that they are used as a measure to indicate the effect so as to distinguish the difference between the thesis and antithesis and as well infer on the amount or quality to harmonize the difference to achieve a synthesis.

Extra credit.

Dialectical thinking is a well-formulated kind of thinking that sought to identify the problem and solve it through harmonization while formal thinking, on the other hand, implies imputing less efforts in thinking not taking into consideration the quality and quantity. However, both types of thinking are used to solve a problem after the identification of an issue.