Depression Symptoms And Types

Depression Symptoms And Types


Depression can be defined as a mental state which is characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity. It is a serious illness that usually affects every part of youth’s living, even his/her family. It has been found that depression mainly affects the adolescent more than any other group. Pre puberty depression occurs equally to both genders though it is not always easy to recognize this problem in children while post puberty depression has been found to be more common in girls than boys. The affected individuals often blame themselves for the negative events and mostly end up not taking credit for a positive result.

There are some of symptoms which are very essential in diagnosis of depression. They must be present for at least fourteen days. These symptoms include significant loss of appetite which is usually followed by fatigue, headaches, digestive problems, loss of weight, poor memory, insomnia or hypersomnia among other related symptoms. In addition, the depressed also shows a very low mood in all aspects of life. Depression to some percentage is also associated with increased risk cardio vascular disease.

There are various types of depression. Types of depression are generally dependant on the causes of depression. The major causes of depression are broadly classified as biological, social and psychological which has been found to be interacting. Depression comes about as a result of pre existing vulnerability (either schematic or of genetic origin) that has been activated by a stressful life events. Psychologically, there are several facets of personality and its development that appear to be inherent to the occurrence and continuity of depression with negative emotionalism being a major contributor. Socially, then feeling of being discriminated or isolated and poverty are the major determinants and causes of depression. Depression can also be induced substantially by substance abuse especially cannabis, alcohol and sedatives. In children, personality development tends to be distorted by the abuses he/she receives from the caregiver.

The effects of depression are usually detrimental. The major known effects include development of chronic illnesses such as cardiac diseases as said earlier, stomach ulceration due to continuous loss of appetite. at times, depression also results in death. It is has been found that most of victims of depression have a reduced life expectancy. Another effect of depression is also drug abuse. Most of youths who are depressed opt for drinking and smoking as an immediate remedy bur also ends up being addictive. Depression among the old people is associated with physical disorders such as stroke, memory loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In children, specifically the school going group, depression leads to decline in academic performance due to lose of interest in life.

There are various ways in which depression can be treated or prevented. However, the type and effectiveness of the method of treatment majorly depends on the type and cause. Physical treatment such as medication (use of antidepressants, tranquillizers and mood stabilizers) and electroconvulsive therapy are more likely to be used in treating depressions of biological origin such as psychotic and melancholic depressions. However, psychological treatment can also be used alongside physical methods in treating this type of depression.

Although the psychological treatment is composed of a wider range of methods, the main ones include cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, psychotherapy, mindfulness meditation and counseling. In cognitive behavior therapy, CBT, people suffering mainly from non melancholic depression are shown that their moods are basically effected by their thoughts and adjusts their thinking from negative to a recommended thinking which although can be negative but faulty. Mindfulness meditation basically is creating awareness on the present without making any judgment, be it negative or positive. Interpersonal therapy aims at enabling the victim understand how their susceptibility can lead or predispose them to developing of depression in future. Psychotherapy is a bit different and reliable in that it usually extends over a bit longer duration and a beneficial relationship is formed between the patient and the therapist. It is through this relationship that that the therapist is able to access the past of the patient which may have led to current depression. Counseling essentially targets to resolve sudden issues at workplace or within the family.


From the discussion above, it is worth noting that drug therapies are quite effective in treatment of depression. However, they pose a danger in that they also have side effects which are likely to outweigh the benefits if users are not careful. They have a tendency to result in drug resistance, drug tolerance, and have the capability to predispose one to depression by making the natural mechanisms of checking depression irresponsive. Use of other therapies other than drug therapy is to some small extent effective but does not apply to all cases of depression. These methods include Inter-Personal Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Depression that has biologic origins can only be treated using drugs that are capable of changing pharmacodynamic reactions within the body. It is important therefore that appropriate techniques for treatment of depression are arrived at. For effective treatment of depression, I suggest that Inter-Personal Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy be given the first priority when treating non-biologic based depressions. This reduces by a great deal the chances of recurrence of the disease among the patients. It also ensures that patients are not put in a position that makes them vulnerable to depression. People should also participate more on jobs that require less concentration for example cooking. Participation in co curricular activities for example athletics, soccer, bicycle riding, dancing, listening to music, etc also helps one to keep his mind relaxed. This reduces chances of being affected by depression. In the case of depressions that have a biologic basis, antidepressant drugs can be administered for a reasonable period of time (mostly six to nine months) and when the patient has indicated satisfactory improvement, Inter-Personal Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy can be adopted. This is very helpful in preventing recurrence, drug resistance and drug tolerance. Use of the correct dose of the drugs is also an important factor since overuse of drugs makes the body to become irresponsive to the normal accepted dosages. People should also be responsible in how they use antidepressants. Mild sicknesses such as boredom and demoralization should not warrant use of antidepressants. In such a case one should try to participate in something that changes the norm and hence restore his/her mindset to normal. If all these factors are taken into consideration, I believe that depression can be kept at very low levels and its treatment can also be made easy using the available drugs.