Delivery of electrical power into the existing power grid

Delivery of electrical power into the existing power grid






Delivery of electrical power to the existing power grid

A power grid consists of interconnected networks that enable the delivery of electrical power from the supplier to the consumer. This power grid entails generating stations which produce electrical power in high voltage. The generating systems are connected to high voltage transmission lines that transmit power from distant sources to demand centers (Kaplan, 2009, 34). The demand centers are then connected to lines that deliver the electrical power to individual customers. Power stations where the electrical power is generated are usually located near a fuel source or at the site of a dam. These power stations are usually located away from heavily populated areas as they may have negative implications in areas of large human settlement. The electric power that is synthesized here is stepped up to a higher voltage which is then transmitted to the transmission network. Transmission networks have a higher efficiency and can even transmit power to long distances and in some instances across international boundaries mainly where the power is being transmitted to a wholesale customer.

Once the power that is transmitted from the generation station reaches a sub-station, it is stepped or rather scaled down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage to a distribution level voltage. From the substation, the stepped down power is directed to the distribution wiring which moves into numerous step down transformers which are located along the grid (Kaplan, 2009, 14). The step down transformers are responsible for the scaling of the power as it enters into lines that deliver power to individual consumers of electricity which includes homes and industries.

Method of control

In the last few years, novel control concepts have been proposed with the goal of making distribution networks in the power grid system by introducing active control mechanism. One of the methods used to control electrical power grid is active control. This method helps in maintaining the health and the stability of the power grid even after it incurs disturbances, loss of equipment or other unforeseen situations by undertaking proactive actions to preserve the stability of the power network. There exist several challenges that are associated with operating a power grid with a high proportion of generation based on renewable resources. Renewable power sources are less predictable than the traditional fuel based power plants (Mazer, 2007, 12). As the power is delivered to the electrical grid system it is essential to monitor several aspects to ensure there is efficiency in the delivery and to ensure it does not cause unintended harm mostly to the end users

The flow of electricity from the generation stations into the power grid is controlled from several control centers especially in the fully developed countries (Mazer, 2007, 78). Electric power distribution systems have had a little history of automation. Power lines and other equipment after their installation to form the grid were expected to function independently with occasional manual adjustments. Currently, in response to the growing demands to improve reliability and the efficiency of the power system and with the onset of technological advancements, more automation is being implemented in the delivery of power to the electrical grid. With this smart grid implementation, utilities can automate applications that improve the distribution systems reliability, lower the cost and increase the efficiency of power delivery to the grid. A chief element in facilitating the automation and smart grid application is real time, bidirectional communications among the supply data centers. Communications permit utility software systems to collect up to the second information on the power delivery systems

Electronic design

The delivery of electrical power to the grid takes a formal electronic design. However, these designs are dependent on the type of power source. Different electronic designs can be used in delivering electricity. Electronic systems have evolved from time to time due to the evolution of the mathematical and the physical structure of the power grid (Kaplan, 2009, 78). These designs in the past had a few control systems unlike the current designs which comprise of numerous control systems which are more sophisticated and are being governed by independent digital control units. There has been a wide research that has been undertaken by engineers which has to a great extent increased the predictability of the power systems involved. Currently there is a narrow window of opportunity to redefine these electronic designs and improving the robustness of the delivery of power from the generation stations to the power grid and to the individual consumers.

Transmission level power system consists of the power flow systems which ensure the line and the various transformers ratings are adequate and to efficiently transmit power to the individual consumers. The transmission system is designed in that on the receipt of power, it disburses it into the main transmission lines in the electrical grid. This transmission system is composed of coils and magnetic material which is responsible for the step-up of the electrical power which is generated as it gets into the main grid (Mazer, 2007, 15). The main purpose of stepping up the power generated is to enable it get to the various distribution substations despite the resistance offered by the conductors used. The voltage from the generating system comes in the form of high voltage direct current. The various circuits at the PowerStation when on step up the power to higher voltages which are then connected to the main lines. The main lines largely consist of heavy duty conductors which are of low resistivity. These main lines connect the power generating station to the main sub-stations which supply to the individual users.

Power output of individual turbines

Large scale electrical energy production largely depends on the use of turbines. Turbines are used in hydro-electric power plants, gas plants and steam plants. A turbine can be termed as a simple device that uses flowing fluids which are liquids and gases to produce electrical energy. The fluid is forced across blades mounted on a shaft which causes the shaft and the entire turbine to turn. The energy that is synthesized from the turbines rotation is converted by generators into electrical energy (Mazer, 2007, 24). Turbines are highly efficient in the production of energy. Each of the individual turbine’s power output is dictated by a number of facts. The size of the turbine including the shafts size is one of them. The second factor that determines the power output of the turbine is the rotation speed. This is chiefly determined by the power produced by the steam or the running water. The efficiency in converting the produced mechanical energy into electrical energy is also a major determinant of the amount of power produced. The energy converted by the generators is then transmitted using the main lines into the power grid system.


Kaplan, S. (2009). Smart grid, electrical power transmission Background and policy issues. The capital govt series.

Mazer, A. (2007). Electric power planning for regulated and deregulated markets. New Jersey: John Wiley and sons.