Definition of geology

Geology Exercise

Definition of geology: geology is defined as the science that deals with the earth’s physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it.

This is a very complicated definition but it means we are looking at anything to do with the earth. In this assignment we are going to be having a brief introduction to geology

Minerals are the basic building blocks of geology. watch the YouTube video here are the five characteristics that define minerals (5 points)

The substance must exist as a solid under normal conditions on earth.

The substance must be naturally occurring on earth, not manmade.

The substance must be inorganic, not living or made from living things.

The substance must have a fixed chemical formula, made of a specific combination of elements.

The atoms making up the substance must be arranged in a specific structure.

This is a picture of the most common mineral quartz

Based on what you see above how would you tell minerals apart? Chose two different characteristics and define why you would chose those characteristics. (feel free to do some research) (4 points)

Quartz mineral occurs in a range of colors with clear being one of them. Quartz mineral in the picture appears colorless which leads me to believe that it is quartz mineral.

Another characteristic is that its hardness and glassy luster and the fact that it breaks with a conchoidal fracture.

There are three types of rocks

Igneous: from volcanoes very often shiny

Metamorphic: made deep in the crust often has big minerals

Sedimentary: made out of eroded other rocks. Often has layers or fossils.


What type of rock is this and why (3 points)

Sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary rocks contain sand-sized grains making it as kind of sandstone as shown in the image above. Sedimentary rocks are made from lithified sediments including minerals, rocks, and mineraloids that are often deposited on the earth’s surface. Notably, sedimentary rocks are soft and contain several layers formed as a result of deposition from sediments.

Fossils: fossils are evidence of past life.

What do you think the fossil is below and what type of environment it lives in? (4 points)

It is a body fossil as it shows the remains of a plant particularly the leaves and tree truck. The fossil shows a hard skeleton of a tree that was once alive. The image shows an image of the external cast that show the remains of what used to be a lively palm tree.

Hint compare to this

So they have found fossils like this in Antarctica from 53 Ma years ago. Based on what you interpreted above what does this say about Antarctica climate 53 Ma ago and how has the climate changed. (see more ) (3 Points)

53 million years ago Antarctica’s climate was warm and filled with palm trees. Today, Antarctica records low temperatures and is among the coldest places in the world. 53 million years ago, Antarctica was a subtropical paradise that maintained temperatures of 25 degrees C and winters that were free of frost.

How does the above example suggest an importance of fossils in understanding changes in the earth (1 point).The example of the palm tree fossil helps the understand extent to which the climate of the Antarctica has changed over the years. By examining fossils of palm trees from a over 50 million years ago, such as the leaves, archeologist can compare determine the kind of climate that existed at the time and compare it to the current climate.

Geologic Maps: scientists use maps to look at where rocks can be found and what that says about the history of a place.

Go to you are done here feel free to play around and look for your own house).

Find Largo and click on it and then describe what the dominant formation is in the area (Hint is blue and look to the left of the zoomed in map) (2 points)

The dominant geologic formation is largo limestone, a fossilized coral reef. The formation is exposed along middle and upper Florida keys to Bahia Honda Channel. The limestones include mollusks, corals, and bryozoans. In some exposures, fossil coral heads formations can be seen.

Then click on the box in the key, which corresponds to the most dominant sediment this will bring up a description of the sediment. Read the full description.

What is the dominant type of sediment is this formation made out of (Sand, Gravel, Mud, all of the above)? (2 Points)

The most dominant sediment is coastal plan rocks and sediments. The sediment is made out of gavel, sand and clay

Given the (rough) idea that Mud=Ocean Sand=Beach and Gravel= River what type of environment would you find this sediment and what does this suggest the environment ofLargo once was (hint it could be more then one) (2 Points).

One is likely to find coastal plan rocks and sediments environments that are mild with cool winters and hot summers. This shows that Largo was an environment that was once mild with temperatures of about 77 degrees throughout the year.

Look at this picture it is of a famous road cut on interstate 68 in western Maryland. What are the rocks doing in the figure below (this is called a syncline) (2 points)

The syncline rocks assist in the storage and collection of underground water. They are helping in the formation of groundwater basins.

What dose this mean has happened to the rocks to help build mountains in western Maryland. (2 Points)

It means that the folded rock layers are helpful as it contributed to the formation of mountains in Western Maryland.