Cultural and other influences on travel decision-making A Case Study

Cultural and other influences on travel decision-making: A Case Study

2222THS – Hotel Distribution and Sales

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Lecturer: Darren Crawford

Due Date: 28/01/22

Introduction

Tourism is regarded as among the most important sources of job creation, income, and cultural support. Travel and tourism are critical to the success of other businesses such as hospitality and transportation. Tourism encourages international investment, commercial possibilities, and corporate, municipal, and governmental infrastructure improvements (Marder et al., 2021). The purpose of this study is to look at the impact of culture on tourist decision-making in America. It aims to explore the impact of cultural elements on local visitors’ vacation destination choices in the United States. The decision-making process of a tourist is impacted by a variety of elements, including personality, lifestyle, socioeconomic level, and culture. Cultural diversity cannot be ignored, but knowing what and how visitors’ desires and willingness, and also their conduct, affects the performance of tourism infrastructure, both domestic and international, is critical (Seabra et al., 2020). The research study is structured to meet the objectives that include gaining an understanding of how culture influences travel consumer behaviour for an American. The first section will provide a personal profile of the interviewee, including socio-cultural influences and individual influences. A comparison will then be made with people from the American culture in general. There will be a section recommending holiday to Australia and promotional tactic appropriate for the same.

Profile of person

Socio-cultural influences

Tourism, by its very nature, is bringing people from different cultures and backgrounds together for a brief period of time in order to connect with individuals from other cultures and backgrounds (Jordan et al., 2018). As a result, tourism has a socio-cultural impact on the average American visitor to some extent. As a consequence of tourism, it has an impact on the everyday lives of people who live in tourist destinations, as well as cultural ramifications that are linked to changes in traditional values, norms, and identities that arise as a result of tourism. Social and cultural consequences of tourism are defined as those that have an impact on the daily lives of residents of tourist destinations, as well as on the daily lives of residents of tourist destinations as a result of visitors’ presence in such places. People differ in many ways, including their language skills, religious views, traditions and cultures, way of life, behavioural patterns, clothing norms, sense of time, financial resources, and attitudes toward strangers, to mention a few (Jovanović et al., 2019). Language is one area where the interviewee observes variances. When it comes to domestic tourism, it is likely that the distinctions between domestic and international tourism are little, but the disparities might be considerable when it comes to foreign tourists.

For the interviewee, sociocultural impacts of tourism are vast. They include the living condition, local culture, and the lifestyle of residents. There are a number of notable factors in these sections, including increased variety in recreational activities and facilities, improved public infrastructure, better and more varied clothing and food, faster transportation, higher revenues and more employment opportunities, improved educational quality, and a higher quality of the urban environment, among others. Also ranking high were the improvement in a region’s image and the resuscitation of local cultural events, both of which the respondent finds to be positive developments. Improvements in the overall quality of life, a reduction in the influx of people from rural to urban areas, the expansion of youth exchange programs, and the expansion of events and recreational activities available to local residents are all sociocultural aspects that the interviewee takes into consideration during the destination decision-making process. Further, as a native of the United States, the interviewee also emphasizes the importance of views of and attitudes toward tourism and visitors as foreigners in any location as being tied to and impacting destination decision-making. Other essential considerations include social characteristics such as rent, crime and national pride, legal position on gambling and prostitution, other forms of sexual behaviour and their interpretations, accessibility, and moral ideals.

Individual influences

The personal profile of the participant shows that there are several significant aspects that he must take into consideration when choosing a location and looking for something that meets his expectations. For the interviewee, choosing travel destinations is a negotiation between the characteristics of the tourist and the characteristics of the tourism destination in which he wants to travel. The intangible characteristics of a location, such as information and photographs, are sought up by the individual interviewer through social networking sites and destination information channels, among other places. A high degree of quality in the material on a website has the potential to dramatically affect his decision-making processes and destination selection when he visits a tourism destination website. However, depending on whether or not it is necessary to evacuate during a pandemic, the objective of the voyage as well as the location chosen may be altered as a result of this determination. In most cases, the interviewee expresses that he picks his travel locations based on their appeal in normal circumstances. Depending on the conditions, the interviewee indicated that he only had a limited or no option of locations to choose from during the present epidemic. Individual differences important to the interviewee include the personal budget, timing, type of adventure or travel experience, travelling companion(s), the exchange rate to the dollar, whether visiting new or returning to a destination, vaccination requirements, visa details, language, infrastructure, recommendations by other travellers, and geopolitics.

The interviewee points out that he is subjected to a variety of environmental pressures, all of which have an impact on his purchasing decisions. Despite this, his consumer purchase processes continue to be heavily impacted by sociological, cultural, personal, and psychological considerations. He is particularly interested in the study of culture, subculture, and social class. It is comprised of the values, ideas, beliefs, symbols, and artifacts that have been formed within his American culture over time. Other essential elements include a comparison of the American community’s value systems, conventions, morals, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours, as well as art and other symbols that are shared by everyone in the community. The respondent went on to say that his consumer behaviour changes as a result of personal aspects such as his age and life cycle, occupation, economic conditions, lifestyle, personality, and self-concept. These considerations explain how his decisions change in response to changing circumstances in the field of tourism and travel.

Compare

Age, family status, and employment all influence decision-making. When compared to other American travellers, the interviewee’s age can be explained by anticipation and maturity. Over time, American visitors have become more health conscious and aware of their options. In terms of travel destinations, budgets, length of stay, and priorities, various age groups of Americans have varying preferences (Matikiti-Manyevere & Kruger, M2019). Youth travel frequently and choose active holidays in remote or less populated regions. They like summer vacations on a budget with a fun focus. Unlike older visitors who are more mature and concerned about their destination choices, younger tourists are motivated by cultural exploration and learning. Companies must establish an age-appropriate approach. Age affects one’s lifestyle, behaviour, and attitudes.

Recommendation to holiday in Australia

Australia offers a plethora of wonderful activities. It is recommended that an American encounters the Tasmanian devil. The Australian Tasmanian devil is the biggest surviving marsupial carnivore on the planet. It is a timid creature that is difficult to see in the wild. Visit Devils Cradle to see this endangered species. The site is a Tasmanian conservation refuge located at the entrance of Cradle Mountain National Park, which is inscribed on the World Heritage List. It is also recommended that the American native meets the residents of the Red Centre’s Uluu-Kata Tjua National Park for a deeper interaction with the First Nations.

Promotional Tactic

The interviewee is basically attracted to a destination based on how it is presented on social media and other online platforms. He is also keen on low-budget travel and on destinations that retain modernity. Culture and class are also important to the interviewee. As such, an online and social media sales promotion tactic would be better placed for his travel needs. Social media has affected our perspective on the world. But it’s rare that it has such a large influence on marketing. Tourism is one. First, one of “The Big Three” social networking networks’ most popular themes is travel (Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram). Traveling allows people to meet new people and share fresh experiences. We also like to post about our forthcoming adventures and then reflect on them.

Historically, word-of-mouth marketing was the most effective. A friend’s suggestion or review on social media may inspire individuals to plan their own amazing vacation (Gumpo et al., 2020). Today, social media may be a source of adventure, thrills, or fun and relaxation. Tourism and social media marketing do not have to seem like ads (Matikiti-Manyevere & Kruger, 2019). The latter lets consumers to share photographs and videos of their own experiences and help their networks fall in love with your business.

Vacations are now planned differently than in the past. They not only conduct much of their research online, but they also frequently ask questions on social media. While TripAdvisor is not the finest social media site, it is nonetheless a social network with millions of unique users/visitors similar to leading social platforms like Facebook (Jovanović et al., 2019). They use typical social networks to arrange future trips. It’s never been simpler to capture memories on the road with cell phones and high-resolution cameras. Many individuals like posting trip images and videos online. They’re popular on the big social networks that are more likely to influence others to travel.

It is proposed that Facebook and Instagram would be utilized as tourist guides and to assist the traveller locate things to do. Also, in addressing when the traveller has not yet determined where they want to go on vacation, social media may serve as a terrific source of inspiration. Also, Facebook’s recommendations function enables users to ask friends for references. Users use social media to gain comments on hotels, travel gear, and destinations. Overall, it’s better to stay on Facebook and search for information there than elsewhere. As a result, many people seek aid on Facebook from their friends before seeking help from other sources.

Conclusion

All over the world, there are numerous tourist attractions, and each one of them is seeking to attract tourists by providing them with a varied choice of products and services to choose from. This gives passengers the choice of selecting a destination that matches their interests and offers them with additional reason to come to that location. The use of social media has altered our consuming patterns, and it has had an influence on practically every part of our everyday lives as a result. Companies have benefited significantly from technology improvements, particularly because they have made it possible to use new marketing methods. Tourist arrivals and departures, which are among the most dynamic sectors of the world economy, are unquestionably influenced by each and every one of these elements. Utilizing social media in conjunction with tourism marketing will provide impressive results. This is especially true for a typical American tourist looking for similarities with the American culture, adventure, and a connection with their travel destination via social media and online platforms.

References

Gumpo, C. I., Madinga, N. W., Maziriri, E. T., & Chuchu, T. (2020). Examining the usage of Instagram as a source of information for young consumers when determining tourist destinations. South African Journal of Information Management, 22(1), 1-11.

Jordan, E. J., Bynum Boley, B., Knollenberg, W., & Kline, C. (2018). Predictors of intention to travel to Cuba across three time horizons: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Travel Research, 57(7), 981-993.

Jovanović, T., Božić, S., Bodroža, B., & Stankov, U. (2019). Influence of users’ psychosocial traits on Facebook travel–related behavior patterns. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 25(2), 252-263.

Marder, B., Erz, A., Angell, R., & Plangger, K. (2021). The role of photograph aesthetics on online review sites: Effects of management-versus traveler-generated photos on tourists’ decision making. Journal of Travel Research, 60(1), 31-46.

Matikiti-Manyevere, R., & Kruger, M. (2019). The role of social media sites in trip planning and destination decision-making processes. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(5), 1-10.

Seabra, C., Reis, P., & Abrantes, J. L. (2020). The influence of terrorism in tourism arrivals: A longitudinal approach in a Mediterranean country. Annals of Tourism Research, 80, 102811.