Conflict Management in School

Conflict Management in School





The conflict’s roots are analogous to the evolution of humankind. We recognize conflict as a normal part of life in all areas where people live. Since the 1970s, confrontation has been a central theme in organizational life, especially in the United States and worldwide. Even one of the outcomes that cause people to be sad and another that leads to job losses and a lack of time for companies caused countries to form organizations and agencies to engage in training to resolve these issues actively. The word conflict conjures up images of anger, terror, tension, dissatisfaction, disappointment, distrust, violence, destruction, devastation, and debate when you first hear it.

This means there’s a slim chance of a disagreement or argument. On the other hand, conflict is seen as a positive factor that can help with personal development, intellectual rebellion, motivation, and encouragement. On the other hand, conflict is an inevitable part of daily life. Individuals and organizations with differing views, points of view, and traditions are likely to engage in conflict. Conflict can be thought of in this light as a natural part of life. Organizational thinking, monitoring, success, and management are all influenced by conflict. In this sense, conflict is viewed as an institutional reality, and each organization’s attitudes, understandings, value judges, world views, priorities, conducts, values, personalities, roles, communication skills, and preferences differ. As a consequence of these inconsistencies and divergences in social and organizational existence, various discrepancies emerge. The inconsistencies become more pronounced when the works overlap, become nuanced and ambiguous, and continue for long periods.

When it comes to conflict resolution methods, the Ruble and Thomas Models for Conflict Management developed by Rahim (1983) come to mind first. (Conflict resolution approaches are divided into five categories in this category: convergence, agreement, negotiation, avoidance, and domination, with examples: In the event of a conflict, both self and the other party are involved in attempts to solve the problem; conciliation decides that the parties in question consider reasonable by sacrificing their interests; avoidance decides that the parties in question consider reasonable by sacrificing their interests; negotiations takes a decision that is taken the interest of the parties in question (2004). At any point, people can use any of the advantages and disadvantages associated with each form of dispute. In different cases, it is essential to use a range of techniques. Dissidents need to be prepared to accomplish their goals. If the objectives are met in the event of a conflict, they will aid in preserving alliances and cooperation. I’ll look at how dispute resolution and mediation will help schools be more competitive.

Description of the problem

Teachers, for instance, do not seem to be able to obey the rules or do additional work, and they do not seem to comply with their principals. Principals take the lead; for example, they compel teachers to ensure that school activities are carried out consistently. It is common for teachers and school leaders to have disagreements during the school day. As a result of their everyday interactions with individuals in organizations, tension develops between them. Hostility, antagonism, and misunderstanding among employees are all contradictory. 8 Effective teams, for instance, go through a process of “form, storm, usual, and run,” which is inevitable and often helpful. Making the most of diversity necessitates a diverse set of philosophies, viewpoints, and values, many of which are at odds with one another. Conflict is essential because it helps with problem identification and resolution.

Work is energized, allowing it to be concentrated on the most critical issues. Encourage “honesty” by encouraging others to participate, for example. Assists individuals in understanding and using their differences. The words “discomfort” and “conflict” are not interchangeable. The issue doesn’t conflict in and of itself, but how it’s handled. Educators and students who value conflict are more likely to resolve disputes positively. According to Moran, conflict management is a “philosophy and a collection of skills that improves people’s perception and management of issues that arise in all facets of their lives” (2001).

Conflicts have never been regarded as either positive or negative but rather as an unavoidable part of school life and outcomes. Depending on the circumstances, conflicts may create a competitive or cooperative working environment. When the context is competitive/individualistic or the context and dispute resolution mechanisms are incompatible, conflicts may be difficult to resolve. When the school environment and the classroom are competitive, the effectiveness of dispute resolution and peer mediation can be harmed.

Conflict can arise from various factors, including shared resources, competing goals, divergent attitudes and values, differences in job roles, and differences like the work. Personal perspectives, practices, and the pace of corporate expansion must all be taken into account. There are six sources of conflict, according to Gray and Stark (1984): 1) resource scarcity; 2) work activity interdependence; 3) role differentiation; 4) communication issues; 5) perception differences; and 6) the organization’s environment.

Conflict is often classified based on pre-existing conflicting circumstances. Conflicts may emerge from several factors, such as roles, values, and objectives. It has been discovered that categorizing conflict based on these sources is essential for a thorough understanding of conflict’s nature and consequences. There may be a conflict of interest among principals regarding the distribution of a finite resource. When “each party with the same view of the situation prefers another and somewhat conflicting solution to a problem involving either the allocation of limited resources among themselves or the option of sharing the work of resolving them,” this type of disagreement occurs

Literature review.

Conflict management.

Disagreements between members and groups arise due to disagreements within a group, where each person holds their own set of beliefs that they believe are correct. In Soetopo’s book Organizational Behavior, all communication issues, organizational structure, and the human factor are discussed as sources of conflict in organizations, including universities (2010). Conflict can occur at any level in schools, including intrapersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, and inter-organizational disputes. Since conflict cannot be avoided, a constructive school approach attempts to use conflict in ways that directly and effectively achieve the desired goals. As the school’s highest-ranking official, the principal must be able to deal with stress efficiently to produce positive results and prevent negative ones. School directors do not avoid conflict; instead, it is managed so that schools are diverse and conflict does not interfere with school curricula. Controversy is an unavoidable part of existence. According to Wirawan (2010), conflict management is when a person involved in a conflict or a third party establishes and implements a conflict plan to control the conflict and achieve the desired outcome. According to Abi Sujak (2010), conflict management is a strategy for reducing or growing conflict to overcome organizational sluggishness. Some conflict management goals, according to Wirawan (2010), are as follows: Conflict mediation and resolution of conflict Resolution of disputes

1) Keep members of an organization centered on its vision, mission, and objectives by removing distractions.

2) Knowledge of other distinctions and appreciation of them

3) Use your imagination to its full potential.

4) Develop guidelines and procedures for resolving disagreements.

A conflict management style, according to Wirawan, is a pattern of behavior that people use to deal with contradictory circumstances (2010). There are five different methods for resolving a disagreement.

1) The path with the least amount of resistance. In conflict situations, those who condemn this style tend to withdraw or stay neutral. Furthermore, management duties would be jeopardized if a conflict was not resolved.

2) A versatile theme that can be used in a range of settings. A dispute resolution strategy with a low level of engagement and a high level of cooperation. To serve the interests of opposing parties, a person disregards his or her interests.

3) The spirit of competition This is a conflict resolution style that emphasizes empathy while minimizing cooperation. This is a power-oriented style in which a person will use his power against the other party to win a dispute.

4) The technique of compromise. To reach an agreement, conflict management styles that sacrifice the interest in reaching an agreement tend to surrender the interest in reaching an agreement.

5) Participate in group activities. It can identify the sources of conflict, openly exchanging information, and developing ideas that take into account potential benefits.

Schools effectiveness

The degree to which a social system with unique resources, such as a training organization, can accomplish its goals without exploiting its processes and resources or putting undue pressure on its participants is referred to as school performance (Marini, 2016). A school’s potential to achieve its objectives is determined by the resources available, which means that schools have varying chances of achieving certain levels of achievement in various circumstances and environments. A school is shaped as an interconnected interaction environment by those who communicate and are organically related.

When it comes to organizational effectiveness, according to Stores (in Rofai, 2006), there are three main topics to consider: (1) The aim optimization perspective, according to which an organization’s performance is determined by how far it has advanced toward its goals. (1) A paraphrase that has been formalized. (2) From the system’s perspective, where performance is calculated in terms of opportunities provided by variables such as patterns, inputs, conversions, outputs, feedback, and the environment as external factors. (3) A viewpoint on human behavior in which effectiveness is calculated by the behaviors of employees or members of the corporation has a long-term effect on the organization’s success. In this case, individual and group activities are combined into a research unit, believing that individual engagement is the only way to accomplish organizational goals. Efficiency is a word that has a lot of connotations in the classroom.

It is possible to see or calculate whether an enterprise is healthy or unhealthy or whether efforts to increase productivity are efficient or ineffective. According to Usman (2013), there are many quality and productive organizational metrics that concentrate on consumers. Efforts to avoid issues, invest in people, treat humans as valuable organizational assets, have high-quality strategies, and treat complaints as suggestions to better oneself (responsiveness), treat quality planning policies, and aim for proclivity.

Analysis and Discussion

Since each school has its own set of conflicts, how they are resolved differs. Conflicts in schools are consistent with the increasing challenges of life and the demanding demands of work, and the principal must handle them so that success and accomplishment are not harmed. If disagreements are not treated correctly, they can cause harm to the business (Oresajo, 2015). There are a variety of management approaches to managing or dealing with conflicts. When it comes to managing disputes in schools, management plays a significant role. Conflict management approaches may be used in school organizations to eliminate disputes. The ability to settle conflicts in schools necessitates management skills such as conflict resolution. Resolution of disputes In this regard, school managers and leaders play a crucial role. Conflict management can be thought of as a tactical method for managing and tracking disputes to meet school objectives.

However, it cannot be denied that not all school administrators possess adequate experience and skills in school conflict resolution. Just a few school leaders have extensive knowledge and experience in school conflict resolution. A growing number of school administrators seem to undervalue the importance of school conflicts, assuming that conflicts can be avoided and resolved (Msila, 2012). Mr. and Mrs. (2012) Conflicts cannot be avoided, but they do not necessarily have a negative effect on schools; for example, if the dispute is managed correctly and effectively, increased creativity and innovation may have a positive impact on schools.

If properly handled, the conflict will foster creativity and innovation in disputing parties (Wirawan, 2010). As a result, school principals must obtain conflict management guidance and training to gain sufficient experience and understanding of conflict management and become acquainted with conflict diagnosis capabilities early on and proactive conflict resolution. most principal experts who collaborate to boost school performance and collaborative conflict management methods successfully implemented and positively impacted student performance (2017). These abilities are needed not only by school administrators but also by teachers and other school personnel (Dady, 2015). Conflicts in schools include disagreements between parents and teachers, pupils, teachers, educators, teachers, students, and students, according to Lloyd and Uzhenyu (2017). All in the class decided to learn how to resolve disputes. Tradition has a significant impact on how disputes are resolved in classrooms.

Mission optimization, device perspective, and human behavior perspective are three viewpoints that can assess an organization’s effectiveness. The degree to which an educational institution can achieve its goals without relying on its processes and resources as a social system with unique resources and methods or exerting undue pressure on its members is described as school effectiveness (Marini, 2016). The achievement of organizational goals is contingent on the availability of resources, which means that schools must operate at different levels under different situations and environments to achieve these efficiency levels. Conflict can improve personal or group control and cooperation, development, adaptation, and innovation among participants, both of which lead to better outcomes (Usman, 2014). Schools’ ability to effectively manage conflicts will support their long-term viability and their ability to accomplish their objectives and improve performance. Organizations that engage in conflict resolution strengthen the connection between organizational goals and productivity in organizational performance (Pazos, 2018), meaning that conflict resolution is critical to enhancing organizational efficiency.


It offers all students the opportunity to study and practice the concepts and skills of conflict resolution in a classroom environment. This approach is used to improve student personal problem-solving skills, teacher management skills, and school setting.

The most effective way to get young people to use non-violent conflict resolution methods is by teaching those values and skills, providing them with opportunities to develop new skills, and helping adult’s model effective use of conflict resolution skills.

If students conflict, teachers should focus on teaching them the best strategies for conflict resolution. Such topics should be taught in class as a subject so that even after leaving school, students will learn from them. They should also be taught how to work together with one another. Conflict resolution mediators should have the following attributes; b, they should build a working relationship with each of the opposing parties. They need to develop a cooperative approach to the solution of problems between the parties, c. They must be able to build an innovative community and group decision-making process. They must gain considerable knowledge of the problems surrounding the conflict


Neglect, agreement, accommodation, partnership, and competition are the five types of conflict resolution. These personality types could be used to assist students in resolving disputes in the classroom. Since each school has its collection of problems, there are several successful conflict resolution methods to choose from. The involvement of effective conflict management by the school can positively affect its sustainability, assist in achieving goals and improving results, and assist in making conflict resolution decisions based on different knowledge, thought, and perspectives. We will improve the effectiveness of education in achieving its goals by using dispute resolution strategies so that any conflict that arises does not go unresolved because it takes time. Schools that manage disputes constructively will see an increase in the relationship between organizational priorities and school effectiveness and a more harmonious school environment and atmosphere.

It would be best if you first considered the different types of dispute resolution in class. Competing, refusing, collaborating, compromising, and accommodating are the most common conflict-resolution strategies. When interested parties seek their interests at the expense of others, the competing style is distinguished by a willingness and determination to cooperate. This approach is best described as a power-driven style, with the term “may be right” being the most accurate definition. The second choice is to avoid taking an unassailable and uncooperative stance; in this situation, the person is not behaving in their best interests and is unaware of the other party. This is often regarded as the best choice since it is built on the concept of self-sufficiency. Collaboration is the polar opposite of avoidance, and it is marked by contact and collaboration. This strategy prioritizes the needs of the parties involved. In this case, all parties have decided to work together.

We assume that a cooperative and collaborative approach to conflict resolution increases the Chairman’s and Board of Directors’ trust and cooperation. When stakeholders with different levels of power and resources are involved, cooperation is especially successful in resolving and sustaining conflicts and disagreements. Compromise is a type of conflict resolution that falls somewhere between affirmation and cooperation. To reach an agreement, it is preferable if everyone agrees to compromise on such topics. Finally, since it is characterized by patience and collaboration, the welcome style is the polar opposite of the competitive style. In this style, an individual gives up some of his concerns to comply with his opponent’s demands. However, there is still a long way to go in terms of resolving disputes and effectively integrating peer mediation training into every classroom and school. However, it should be noted that a work environment free of tension is more conducive to efficient and creative work.


Larasati, R., & Raharja, S. (2020, February). Conflict Management in Improving Schools Effectiveness. In 3rd International Conference on Learning Innovation and Quality Education (ICLIQE 2019) (pp. 191-197). Atlantis Press.

Magpili, N. C., & Pazos, P. (2018). Self-managing team performance: A systematic review of multilevel input factors. Small Group Research, 49(1), 3-33.


Dady, N. P. (2015). Conflict Management Strategies Used by Headteachers and Teachers of Primary Schools in Tanzania. Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences (JEHS), 4(2).

Yaacob, N. A., Osman, M. M., & Bachok, S. (2014). Factors influencing parents’ decision in choosing private schools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 242-253.

Larasati, R., & Raharja, S. (2020, February). Conflict Management in Improving Schools Effectiveness. In 3rd International Conference on Learning Innovation and Quality Education (ICLIQE 2019) (pp. 191-197). Atlantis Press.

Msila, V. (2012). Conflict management and school leadership. Journal of communication, 3(1), 25-34.