ARQ Chapter 10 QUIZ

1-Define the term “statistics.”

numerical data, and is the field of math that deals with the collection, tabulation and interpretation of numerical data.

2- Statistics are deceptive in many ways. Name 2 ways authors may attempt to deceive us with the use of statistics:

One of the ways authors use statistics to deceive is by using upper and lower figures to create estimates. This involves either using the upper or lower limits of data to magnify or minimize the outlook of something. Higher figures can be used by the author to distort the true image and make something look bigger than its actual size or length.

The other way authors use statistics to lie is by using complicated figures that are meant to build onto a hidden meaning. Such an approach is often used when describing a very detailed figure that many people perceive as complex and thus pay little attention to when analyzing.

3-Using averages are a common way of reporting statistics but can be deceptive if we don’t understand the 3 ways the author determines an average. Name the 3 ways to determine averages and explain how they are different from one another.

The common types of average in statistics are; the mean, the mode and the median, each of which describes a different ‘normal’ value.

Mean average is calculated by adding all numbers in the data set and then dividing by the number of values in the set.

The median average is derived by arranging the numbers in numerical order from smallest to largest, and picking the middle one as the median. In case of two numbers, the sum of the two is then divided by two to get the median.

The mode average is the number that appears most times in a list or sequence

4-Authors often deceive us by omitting information? Read Chapter 10 from your textbook American Wasteland and provide two specific examples of how Bloom has omitted information.

Bloom puts across unrealistic figures to sell his idea about how Americans waste food that could have been used to assists those going hungry. The deception here comes in terms of figures and statements that are made by Bloom to show how wastage is a major issue. The first way Bloom deceives the reader is by comparing food wasted to money that seeks to put unrealistic figures.

The other way Bloom deceives the reader is by comparing two unrelated elements that is food and time or cost of production. The figures presented by Bloom in the book fail to strike some sense or reality as he overlooks the key element of statistical errors. The author claims that the hours spent in the production of the wasted food could go into more important activities that would save the economy billions of dollars. While this is somehow true, Bloom uses this opportunity to deceive the reader by magnifying the figures and thus archives his purpose of conveying the message in his own views.

5-When you visit a doctor’s office to get a potential treatment, the brochures always show you risk statistics in relative rather than absolute terms. Why do you think risk statistics are projected in relative terms? Explain/elaborate your response using a specific example.

Risk statistics are always depicted in relative form because it is hard to strike the real value of a health risk. The elative figures are also a way of offering room for errors in case the risk value goes to unexpected levels. The margins of errors are thus catered for when using relative figures because it can go either way in the final outcomes. For example, the risk figures for most antibiotics is indicated as 1.5 that means that on the relative value, the risk is still at its lowest configuration. This approach is vital when dealing with non-static measurements like risk value.