Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

(Author’s name)

(Institutional Affiliation)

Carnine, D. (1976). Effects of two teacher- presentation rates on off- task behavior, answering correctly, and participation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (2), 239- 53.

This increasingly essential article highlights the essentiality of teacher preparedness as a toll in furthering the achievement of students. The article discusses of off- task behavior, of participation and correct answering during the beginning of reading instruction, in which their effectiveness was measured and recorded for a couple of low- achieving students during two distinct rates of tutor presentation. The study compared the first teacher preparation, which included a presentation done in slow rate and the second kind of preparation, which included a presentation done in a quickened rate designed as an ABABAB. The study indicated that in the first type of preparation there was a delay among the response of the students and the introduction of the following task.

However, in the second type of preparation, which included fast- rate presentation, no delay was observed. The study made use of this study to highlight the importance of teacher preparation in presentation techniques in controlling and improving student behavior, participation and correct answering. According to the study, a number of techniques are available to well- prepared teachers that help them control behavior of students like extinction, rules and social approval. All these are only available to those teachers who are well prepared, and the positive results were well highlighted by the study.

What made this article so essential is the fact that the authors provided a well- documented literature review; a well carried and documented research, its methodologies, results and discussions. All the crucial information contained in the paper was also well- backed by academic research and articles. The extensive bibliography also highlights the quality of the study. The general discussion, as well as, the summary provide a useful overview of the conclusions the researchers draw and could be used in the research article for the purposes of supporting the conclusion.

Maxwell, L. & Clifford, M. (2006). Professional development issues in universal prekindergarten. In E. Zigler, W. Gilliam and Jones (Eds.). A vision for preschool education. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Years of research and studies highlight the need for a universal preschool program in education in the United States to aid in preparing and providing the children of the great nation a sound social and cognitive foundation on which to base their life successes and educational successes. Furthermore, other than enhanced and improved school readiness and enhanced performance in academic, participation in preschool programs of high quality has been associated with a considerable decrease in grade retentions and rates of school dropouts, and cost savings related to a decreased need for remedial services in education and justice.

This book, and mainly this chapter, highlights not only the need for improved universal preschool education systems but also enhanced teacher preparedness and knowledge. The author highlights and describes the educational, social and economic advantages for the country as a whole that might be derived from the development and implementation of universal preschool system in the United States, aided and supported by a program that improves and provides numerous guiding standards upon which such a program can be better based on like calling for improvement in the way teachers are prepared for the classroom.

I found this book in one of the college’s online libraries. I found it after searching for the word teacher preparation in the title field and arranged the following results by most relevant and most recently published. Needless to say, I found more than one book that looked useful in the catalog but this particular book was one of the most useful, information wise, once I got a chance to look at it on the shelves. This book is an incredible contribution to the topic as it gathers information from numerous authors, who also cite other essential sources in education. I found it increasingly refreshing and informative for the paper.

NRC (2001). Eager to learn: educating our preschoolers. Committee on early childhood pedagogy. B. Bowman, M. Donovan and M. Burns (Eds.). Commission on behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington: National Academy Press.

This chapter is about the education provided to children between the ages of five and two. The chapter emphasizes more on the programs provided in other areas other than at home like head start, preschool and childcare centers. The article highlights different kinds of critical points in educating children, and one particular part that seemed crucial to the paper has to do with the preparation of the professionals responsible for early childhood students. According to the authors, the history of teacher preparation is as wide as other facets of early childhood programs. In the US, there has been no national or state certification or standards process for teachers of young students. They assert that before the 1960s, few states included teacher qualifications in their standards of licensing; the article indicates that the field of teacher preparation is still characterized by teachers with basic training and preparation.

The authors indicate that there is a significant mismatch between the compensation and preparation of average teachers in early childhood and the growing expectations of policy makers and parents. The article asks teachers of young students to promote and embrace high standards of achievement among all students, to respond appropriately and sensitively to a broad range of diverse needs of their students, develop and implement complex pedagogy, have an excellent understanding of the subject matter of what they teach, engage and participate in serious reflection of their practices and work in collaboration with families and colleagues. According to the authors, these are some of the most essential signs of teacher preparedness in early childhood programs.

As it is obvious, this was one of the most relevant articles I found for the preparation of this paper. The reason I say this I sbecause the article brings out the role of professionals who deal with young and small children in making sure that these children achieve as high as the can because the teacher are well- preapered and are ready

Sutherland, S. & Wehby, H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD. Remedial and Special Education, 22 (2), 113- 21.

Stayton, V., Miller, P. & Dinnebeil, L. (2002). Personnel preparation in early childhood special education. New York: Wesley and Sons.

Wagner, M. et al. (2005). The children and youth we serve: a national picture of the characteristics of students with emotional disturbances receiving special education. Journal of emotional and behavioral disorders, 13 (2), 79- 95.