Annotated Bibliography on Racial Disparities and Health Systems in the United States

Annotated Bibliography on Racial Disparities and Health Systems in the United States

Student’s Name

Institution of Affiliation


Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 77(3-4), 1113-1152.

The source focuses on the history of racial disparities and access to health healthcare in the United States as a result of structural racism. For example, the Jim Crow era was a period in which the federal government sponsored and supported racial separate and unequal distribution of resources including healthcare. The article states that these inequalities still exist in modern America as structural racisms prevents African Americans from obtaining equal access to resources such as wealth, income, employment and health care, resulting in racial health disparities. The source will be useful in health disparity assignments as it informs the cause of health disparities in the United States.

Wasserman, J., Palmer, R. C., Gomez, M. M., Berzon, R., Ibrahim, S. A., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2019). Advancing health services research to eliminate health care disparities. American journal of public health, 109(S1), S64-S69.

The article notes of the existence of health care disparities in the United States especially in the areas of access and quality care. As a result, attention to health care disparities have increased, but there continues to exist considerable knowledge gaps. The article highlights the need to better understand cultural, behavioral and heath system factors and how they contribute to the unequal and differential care in the United States. Since the source focuses on the approaches to reducing health care disparities, it will offer more information on solving the existing health disparity issues in the United States by creating a health system that provides access, removes barriers to care and provides equally effective treatment to all citizens.

Griffith, K., Evans, L., & Bor, J. (2017). The Affordable Care Act reduced socioeconomic disparities in health care access. Health Affairs, 36(8), 1503-1510.

The article states that the United States has the largest social economic disparities in health care access. The article assesses the eligibility to health insurance and access to medical services in states under the Affordable Care Act. Absolute gap was identified in households with low incomes and those with high incomes. The Affordable Care Act however reduced the disparity. The source will help inform health disparities in regard to income and socio-economic status, and the role of government in reducing the cost of access to health services. Medicaid is a government sponsored health insurance that has helped reduce the gap in health disparities in the United States.

Morey, B. N. (2018). Mechanisms by which anti-immigrant stigma exacerbates racial/ethnic health disparities. American journal of public health, 108(4), 460-463.

The article highlights the plight of immigrants in the United States especially before, during and after the 2016 elections. During this time, health disparities increased among undocumented people, people of color and immigrant persons. This was due to the fear of deportation and detention, discrimination and stress, and policies in the United States that limited access to health resources. Also, the article notes the role of public health in policy making especially on immigrants’ access to health care. The source will help inform health disparities in the United States since cases of immigrants and undocumented person is very high. These people continue to face discrimination in health access and provision.

Purtle, J., Henson, R. M., Carroll-Scott, A., Kolker, J., Joshi, R., & Diez Roux, A. V. (2018). US mayors’ and health commissioners’ opinions about health disparities in their cities. American journal of public health, 108(5), 634-641.

The research aimed at characterizing US mayor’s and health commissioners’ opinions about health disparities in their cities. Most of the mayors acknowledged that health disparities existed in their cities, and that some of the factors associated with the disparities could be avoided. The source will be of great help since it acknowledges that leaders in higher positions are aware of the existence of health disparities. They are also aware that these disparities could be avoided by better policy-making.

Friedman, M. R., Bukowski, L., Eaton, L. A., Matthews, D. D., Dyer, T. V., Siconolfi, D., & Stall, R. (2019). Psychosocial health disparities among black bisexual men in the US: Effects of sexuality nondisclosure and gay community support. Archives of sexual behavior, 48(1), 213-224.

The article focuses on special groups in the United States such as gay community and black bisexuals. According to the article, black bisexual men experience psychosocial health disparities such as depression, polydrug use, physical assault, and intimate partner violence. The source will be of great help since it focuses on sexuality and access to health services. Most of the gay men especially from the black community are likely to face challenges in accessing treatment and other medical services as they do not conform to the community culture and also, due to racism.

Roghani, A., & Panahi, S. (2021). Does Telemedicine Reduce health disparities? Longitudinal Evidence during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. medRxiv.

The article highlights the role of telemedicine during Covid-19. It focuses on the elderly population and those with pre-existing conditions. The article states that the advent of Covid-19 increased the use of telehealth medicine. The results of the study indicates that telehealth has reduced racial disparities and provided greater accessibility for older groups. The source will be or great help in highlighting the plight of telemedicine in reducing health inequalities, which according to the article, it has a positive impact especially to the elderly as well as those with pre-existing conditions.

Hege, A., Lemke, M. K., Apostolopoulos, Y., & Sönmez, S. (2018). Occupational health disparities among US long-haul truck drivers: the influence of work organization and sleep on cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk. PLoS One, 13(11), e0207322.

Long distant truck drivers are among the special groups since they are always on transit. The change in work organization have led to disproportionately poor physiological, and sleep health outcomes. As a result, these truck drivers have an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The source will help in health disparities assignments in that it informs occupational health disparities in the United States. Based on this, it will help decision-making and focus on riskier group.

Petersen, R., Pan, L., & Blanck, H. M. (2019). Peer Reviewed: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Adult Obesity in the United States: CDC’s Tracking to Inform State and Local Action. Preventing chronic disease, 16.

The CDC is mandated to tracking data on the burden of obesity and its related racial and ethnic disparities to provide information that can highlight areas where state and local actions are most required. Obesity is a major issue in the United States, and racism is also a dread issue. Black obese persons face high health disparities. The source also highlights about childhood obesity. The source will help my health disparities assignment as obesity is a major issue and which people with obesity are discriminated. Statistic suggests that racial disparities in health access among black obese children and adult is immense.

Stevenson, M., & Youde, J. (2021). Public-private partnering as a modus operandi: Explaining the Gates Foundation’s approach to global health governance. Global Public Health, 16(3), 401-414.

The article states that The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation established transnational public-private partnerships aimed at increasing low-income country access to essential health technologies. There are critics that their efforts have benefited already profitable firms while ignored the needs of populations with limited purchasing power. Technology is a crucial part in quality health service delivery. The source will be helpful in my assignments in that it highlights the purpose of private companies in reducing health disparities such as The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have been doing in low-income countries and in United States.